The verb form gi4 and its uses in the Sumerian sentence structure


  • Sarood Talib Mohammed Taher College of Arts, Salahaddin University-Erbil
  • Ari Khalil Kamil College of Arts, Salahaddin University-Erbil



Sumerian language, texts, cuneiform, formula, verb, sentence


This research targets the Sumerian verb gi4 principally in terms of its uses in the Sumerian sentence structure. The objective of this research revolves around investigating and highlighting the root of the verb gi4 in the Sumerian texts. One of the most interesting motive is that the verb in its context has several meanings, aside of the most notably "return" and "turn". So, a linguistic analysis of the Sumerian root gi4 within its grammatical and semantic properties, is the method which we follow in this research. This Sumerian syllable is primarily a verb (with various degrees of meanings attached to it), but it also makes up important adjectives, nouns, and terms in Sumerian sentences. In the analysis of vocabulary, we rely on the texts of the third BC and early second millennium BC in Mesopotamia, i.e. the time period extending from approximately 2600 to 1500 BC, and on several categories of documents, including administrative and legal texts, as well as literary productions.