Zanco Journal of Human Sciences en-US <p>Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licenced<br />under a <a title=" Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY- 4.0)</a></p> (Management Staff) (Support) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:02:59 +0300 OJS 60 Singing through the Stages of its Development and The Context of its Aesthetics <p>The focus of this research is aesthetic philosophical thinking about the art of singing and an attempt to reach its connotations and aesthetic secrets through the stages of its development and context and to identify its essence in interpreting its nature, value, function and impact on the recipient. This aesthetically drawn image, intertwined with a person’s material and physical needs, is interconnected with artistic awareness and in a way that reflects the creation of an artistic work that parallels his process of sensory perception. Therefore, it must accompany three stages, which are equivalent to the formation of the artistic process and its manifestations. In the first stage (elevation): the person must be satisfied until He philosophizes, to rise from material life, from the needs of the body, to devote himself to intellectual life, where he is concerned with mental aspects, such as the highest values, truth, goodness, and beauty. In the second stage (discovery), beauty is discovered in nature (in reality, in life) and then extracted. Enjoying it as spiritual nourishment is the condition of the ordinary human being. In the third and final stage, which is called the artistic process, the artist takes beauty, describes it in his psyche, then returns it as manufactured beauty, which is called art. This art is an act of renewed faith in the social, intellectual, and human values that a person feels, just like the artist, since the average person is ignorant of artistic expression. The artist is the one who highlights one of the aspects of beauty in those values as a declaration of confirmation of their importance.</p> Surwd Fuad Mohammed Al-Sarraj Copyright (c) 2024 Surwd Fuad Mohammed Al-Sarraj Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Description Electronic Dictionary in Kurdish Language <p>This research is an attempt to reveal information about dictionary, how dictionary first emerged in the world and among the Kurdish and who created the first dictionaries. Every language a dictionary in order to survive.</p> <p> Every language has many types of dictionaries, dictionaries are created in all aspects of life, such as sociology, psychology, language, literature, etc., but the most important thing is that the types of dictionaries are in terms of content and appearance, which includes several types. Therefore, we refer to this type of electronic dictionary in terms of appearance, and content.</p> <p>The study is divided into two parts: The first part is a theoretical overview of dictionary, which include concept and definition of dictionary. Moreover, information is provided in general about dictionary, the history of dictionary in the world and Kurdish, and dictionary writing and types of dictionaries. The second part is devoted to the analysis of the electronic dictionary, special emphasis is placed on all the electronic dictionaries that contain Kurdish language that are available for users. Data is provided about the dictionaries up to the end of 2023. Then the characteristics of Kurdish dictionary are presented. Finally, the suggestions and the results are presented in several points. Then the sources are listed.</p> Iman Askandar Jawhar, Media Murad Muhammadamin Copyright (c) 2024 Iman Askandar Jawhar, Media Murad Muhammadamin Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Role of Queen Šīšīnduxt in Strengthening Relations Between the Sasanian State and the Jews <p>This study describes the role of queen Shishindokht, the wife of King Yazhgverdi I, who was in a prominent Jewish family responsible for Russ Jalut, and was the reason for strengthening the relationship between the Sasanian state and the Jews. The queen's support has done a number of great achievements, which have influenced Jewish social relations, as well as the restoration and reconstruction of The City of Esfahan, which led to the settlement of many Jews in the city, resulting in peace. The queen's latter work was to solve the tax code and pay taxes, because in the eyes of the Jews، tax donations were not allowed except for Jews, but it was a crime, but because of the role of Shishindokht, the queens had been called (Queen) who was also a boy mother, she solved many issues, despite the many remains of the time, indicates that the Jews lived peacefully under the queen’s ruling during the rule of Yisgury I.</p> Kalthuma Jameel Abdulwahid Copyright (c) 2024 Kalthuma Jameel Abdulwahid Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Rural Development Indicators Evaluation in Khabat District Educational Services as a Case Study (A Study in Rural Geography) <p> Educational development is one of the objectives of rural development, as it plays a major role in eliminating illiteracy and providing schools and even in the sense of gender in the minds of the villagers, it is clear that this service is available in the villages of Khabat District. therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the situation in Primary school education is available to reveal the extent to which there is equity in the distribution of educational services, in addition to working to identify functional skills and identify barriers to achievement In addition to its objectives, this study relies on descriptive and analytical methods, including The research is divided into four main themes, which include the theoretical framework of the research, as well as the distribution and differences of place for educational services and functional skills, it is worth mentioning the research area In the academic year (2022-2023), in terms of the number of schools, only (66) Mixed schools have the highest percentage of 95.5% of all types of schools, and the number of boys is higher than that of girls, while the number of female teachers is higher than that of girls There are more males, in addition to the shortage in the number of school buildings, in addition to the villages that are not served They are schools in 10% of the villages in the district. All the indicators are below the education planning criteria, except for the indicator (teacher/student) which is above the criteria Ease of access and time to schools are mostly above education planning criteria, which reflects It creates negativity in the educational process.</p> Hogir Jamil Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Hogir Jamil Ahmed Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Religious Commendation of Arbail (Erbil) in New Assyrian Literature in the Light of the Poetic Poem of Ashurbanipal (668-627 BC.) <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 115%;">This research is entitled (Religious commendation of Arbail (Erbil) in New Assyrian literature in the light of the poetic poem of Ashurbanipal (668-627 BC.), highlights the importance of the city of Arbail (Hewler) in the history and civilization of Mesopotamia in the seventh century BC. From the perspective of the translated cuneiform text, it is an important work of Assyrian literature because it was written under the direct supervision of Assyrian kings themselves. However, much of the text has been destroyed for natural and human reasons. However, this study is analyzed by the researcher in the context of other poems written for other Assyrian capitals similar to the city of Arbail in the seventh century BC. The research is based on theoretical analysis and comparative archaeology, and the interpretation of the research results is the result and effect of reading many similar literary and religious texts. The researcher tried to study an important literary text, an in-depth study of a poem written 2600 years ago in a precise way in archaeology, which relied on ancient features of Assyrian traditions and culture in an archaeological context and analyzed through literary evaluation. The significance of this research is that for the first time an ancient historical literary text is analyzed in detail and comprehensively relevant in terms of ancient religious thinking, culture, life and civilization, and explains the ancient religious principles of the glory of the city<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">.</span></span></p> Karwan Saddiq Bekr Blbas Copyright (c) 2024 Karwan Saddiq Bekr Blbas Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Impact of Modern Macroeconomic Policies on Economic Growth, an Applied Study in Each of (Iraq, UAE, Egypt) During the Period (2000-2021) <p>The study aimed to identify modern macroeconomic policies (monetary and financial) and their role in achieving economic development in Iraq compared to the UAE and Egypt. Fiscal policy: (public spending and public revenues), and two aspects of monetary policy: (exchange rate, interest rate and volume of domestic credit granted to the private sector). For data for the period 2000-2021.</p> <p>The results of the study and the existence of a clear relationship and impact in the long run and at a high level between the independent variables of each of monetary and fiscal policy and the dependent variable in economic growth, and this means that both fiscal and monetary policies contribute to influencing economic growth. Government spending was more effective in influencing economic growth than the impact of monetary policy. The researcher made a number of important recommendations to achieve economic stability</p> Gazang khalid kareem Copyright (c) 2024 Gazang khalid kareem Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Geomorphology of Gali Ali Beg Valley Area in Erbil Governorate <p>Due to the importance of the study area for Erbil governorate and for it is practical and strategic implications, as it represents the only pass way that passes a high and complex structural ranges that linked the north part of the governorate with middle and south parts, and also for it is tourism importance and scientific value for the geologic purposes in particular, as it reveals rock formations at great depths in the valley area and for the lack of paying attention to this area from scientific point of view due to scarcity of geological and geomorphological studies about it, so the study aimed to study the landforms, perhaps its data and analyses contribute to development plans and projects that may include the study area in the future, as well as developing solutions for the geomorphological hazards taking places in the study area such as mass movements which are threatening architectures foundations, facilities and also people there. The main objectives of this study are to simplify and clarify the complex view about the area for the researchers and those interested in the field of geomorphology and other related disciplines, though the study found out the valley area is highly affected by its structural status. That represented by many folds which are subjected to main and giant faults; therefore, the structural factor was the dominants agents in developing most of the landforms in the area such steep slopes and landforms caused by mass movements, waterfalls, springs and the gorges …. etc., and also there is some geomorphic hazards in which some solutions have been proposed for.</p> Hikmat Abdulazeez Hamad Alhusainy Copyright (c) 2024 Hikmat Abdulazeez Hamad Alhusainy Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Technological Vigilance and its Impact on Improving the Dimensions of Health Service Quality an Analytical Study of the Opinions of Functional and Medical Staff at Azadi Hospital in Dohuk and Gulan Hospital in Akre <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This study aims to evaluate the level of technological vigilance in relation to health service quality at Azadi Hospital in Dohuk and Gulan Hospital in Akre. The study also aims to determine how technological vigilance and its dimensions (market vigilance, information vigilance, and competitive vigilance) affect the health service quality in these hospitals. The importance of this research lies in providing a theoretical and practical framework that explains the relationship between technological vigilance and health service quality.</p> <p> </p> <p>The study used a descriptive-analytical approach and relied on questionnaires to collect data. The randomly selected staff members from Azadi and Gulan Hospitals have participated in the survey. A total of 40 questionnaires were distributed to supportive and medical staff at Azadi Hospital, and 34 questionnaires were distributed to supportive and medical staff at Gulan Hospital. A total of 62 questionnaires were returned from both hospitals .In general, the research attempts to answer the following questions:</p> <p>1-What is the nature and type of correlations between dimensions of technological vigilance and the health service quality among supportive and medical staff at Azadi and Gulan Hospitals?</p> <p> 2- What is the nature and type of influence relationships between dimensions of technological vigilance and the health service quality among supportive and medical staff at Azadi and Gulan Hospitals?</p> <p>The research aims to the following:</p> <ol> <li>Describe and diagnose the levels of dimensions of technological vigilance and health service quality among supportive and medical staff at both hospitals.</li> <li>Test the correlation between dimensions of technological vigilance and the health service quality among supportive and medical staff at both hospitals.</li> <li>To investigate the impact of dimensions of technological vigilance and the quality of health services among supportive and medical staff at both hospitals.The researchers employed various statistical tools to analyze and test research hypotheses for the data collected through questionnaires from supportive staff (administrators, engineers, and accountants) and medical staff (doctors and nurses) in the two investigated hospitals. The research drew several conclusions, with the most important one confirming a significant and positive correlation between technological vigilance and its dimensions, and health service quality. The study also found a significant and positive effect between these two variables. The study also showed that the competitive vigilance dimension had the highest significant and positive correlation and effect on health service quality, followed by informational technological vigilance and market technological vigilance, respectively. Based on the findings, various suggestions have been put forward.</li> </ol> Faris Younus Shamsadden, Mohammed Rasheed Yaseen Zeebaree Copyright (c) 2024 Faris Younus Shamsadden, Mohammed Rasheed Yaseen Zeebaree Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Effectiveness of Thinking Originality in Predicting Match Management Methods among Football Coaches <p>The research aims are to identify:</p> <p>1-Identifying the level of match management methods and originality of thinking among coaches of first-class football clubs in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.</p> <p>2-Identifying the effectiveness of the creative thinking abilities of coaches of first-class football clubs as a result of their methods of managing the match.</p> <p>The research methodology was determined by the descriptive approach according to the analytical and surveying methods, and the research sample was represented by the coaches of the first -class football clubs in the Kurdistan Region, and the research tools included from the Asala Al -Takrak scale prepared by (Abdul Latif Muhammad Khalifa, 2007) and the scale of the management methods prepared by ( Wael, and Ahmed, 2018) After applying the two measurements to the research sample, a set of conclusions were reached, including:</p> <p>a-The first-class football club coaches in the Kurdistan Region have a high level in the management of the match management.</p> <p>b-The originality of thinking among the coaches of the first football clubs in the Kurdistan Region contributed effectively and positively in their management methods of the football match.</p> <p>The study recommended the need to invest the research results in building programs to develop creative capabilities in thinking about football coaches and the ability to use them in the art management art during sports competitions.</p> Omar Majeed Aga Copyright (c) 2024 Omar Majeed Aga Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Kurdish Issue and its Reflections in the Newspaper Ma'arif Israelis In (1961-1968) <p>This research on the Kurdish issue in the newspaper Ma'arif during the years (1961-1968) emphasizes the attitude and attention to the Kurdish issue in the newspaper Ma'arif, by highlighting the inner side of events within the news and data of the newspaper The research consists of an introduction and three topics. The first topic is a summary of the newspaper's, the method of publication and the editorial board. The second topic is the Kurdish issue in two periods The newspaper's position during the negotiations and the rapprochement between the Kurds and the government is presented, referring to the external position on this issue</p> Qaraman Haydar Rahman , Arazu Yousf Hasan Copyright (c) 2024 Qaraman Haydar Rahman , Arazu Yousf Hasan Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Measures to Prosecutr Rulers for Breaking the Constitution <p>Rulers sometime deviate from commitment to the provisions of the Constitution and laws when they practise power. This may be unintentional or intentional in some cases. The deviation is come back to various reasons, but the most prominent of them is the desire of the rulers to remain in power. This deviation is interest of the rulers and not in the citizens interest in general. However, there are always constitutional and legal procedures to hold rulers accountable as a result of their deviation from the constitution and laws, and especially the main authorities in the country do an effective role in holding accountable rulers who do not commitment to the country’s constitution and laws. For example, the legislative authority, through some of its means, such as interrogation, discussion, and withdrawal of confidence from the president. Ministers, one of the ministers, or the entire cabinet, and heads of independent bodies. Likewise, the judicial authority through the courts receives appeals and lawsuits against violating rulers, whether these are specialized courts such as the Supreme Criminal Court in Iraq, which was established in 2005 and it had high role in investigating and trial the rulers of the previous regime, or through permanent courts such as the Constitutional Court, which refuses Any deviation from the constitutional and legal rules, and the Administrative Court and the Employee Discipline Board also manages to take positions against administrative instructions and decisions that are not consistent with the laws. At the same time, there are some other means such as demonstrations, public opinion, and even the rise of revolutions that can occur to remove rulers who violated the constitution and laws, or at least played a role in forcing rulers to return to compliance with the constitution and laws.</p> Aram Najmadeen Abdulghafoor Copyright (c) 2024 Aram Najmadeen Abdulghafoor Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Artistic Structure in Kurdish Mobile Poetry <p>Every literary text in general and poetry in particular have two main aspects involved in its structure: the artistic structure and the subject structure, which become the main foundation of the text structure It is a poetic text that is capable of containing all other principles. From this perspective, the artistic structure exists in every poetic text and finds itself in the aspects of (form, language, artistic image and rhythm). His interpretation and exposure of the artistic structure of the Kurdish poetic mobile and the advantages of this poetic form, which appeared in Kurdish poetry after the Iraqi liberation process, caused the poetic form and poetic language to manifest themselves in a different way, including the language and images in this form were simple and often close to everyday language, which made poetry in the form of (mobile poetry) appear somewhat weak In form, pleasure and aesthetics are not as important as content and purpose.</p> Kamaran Aba-bakr Khudhur Khoshnaw Copyright (c) 2024 Kamaran Aba-bakr Khudhur Khoshnaw Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Novel of Scientific Thought for Example, Goran Sabah's Novel(Cheap Human Beings) <p>This research is entitled (Novel of Scientific Thought as an Example of Goran Sabah's Novel Cheap Man). It consists of an introduction and several topics. In this article, we will discuss a detailed definition of scientific thought and imagination, as well as the dangers of scientific advances on human life and environment Then we will discuss the conflict and confrontation between biological and technological creatures and reflected in the novel Cheap Man. Finally, the results are presented in several points, and the sources are scientifically classified. With translation of the research summary into Arabic and English.</p> Soran Mamand Abdullah , Bryar Khaleel Husein , Rehan Rasul Ahmed , Parween Abdullah khudhur , Karzan Mohsen Qadir Copyright (c) 2024 Soran Mamand Abdullah , Bryar Khaleel Husein , Rehan Rasul Ahmed , Parween Abdullah khudhur , Karzan Mohsen Qadir Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Standing and Crying Over the Ruins in the Poetry of Arab Women Poets from the Pre-Islamic Era to the Abbasid Era <p><br />Standing on the ruins and crying home was one of the distinct features that were known by the introductions to pre-Islamic poetry poems, and it became a tradition followed by most poets, and poets continued it in the era of early Islam, the Umayyad era and the Abbasid era, poets stood on the ruins and mentioned the old homes and mentioned the beloved, although some of them had abandoned those environments that led to this tradition, women in their poetry followed the traditions of standing on the old homes with many verses for her You stand in it on the ruins. <br />This study reveals the poems in which the poets stood in the ancient era on the ruins and crying home and spinning, and the reasons for the emergence of this phenomenon in their poetry through the extrapolation of these poems following the descriptive analytical approach, in the pre-Islamic era the poets were most of them were starting their poetry directly with the purpose of poetry basis, which was lamentation, due to being affected by the greatness of the tragedy, or because most of their poetry was in the form of clips for this we do not find them introductions and crying home only Rarely, we found examples of Umayyad and Abbasid poets who adhere to the Talali heritage, so that they weep and pour their tears into it and flirt with some of them abandoning these traditions, and replacing them with the description of palaces, riads and flowers, especially in the Abbasid era. </p> Hafssat Najm Mawlood Copyright (c) 2024 Hafssat Najm Mawlood Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Assessing By Model Fitting Criteria and Comparing Between Stirling and Aitken Interpolation Formulas to Determine the Preferred Treatment of Choice, (Surgery) Or (Surgery with Chemotherapy), For Lung Cancer, In Kurdistan <p>Numerical analysis is a branch of mathematical science; Interpolation is a method in Numerical analysis used for creating a model for group of discrete data points. This paper focused on two interpolations methods [Stirling's and Aitken] in numerical analysis can use the applied mathematics, to identify the mathematical model which it is bio statistical model refers to the equation about the effect of the best type of treatment for the Lung cancer, where the Lung cancer is a dangers disease either starts in the lungs then extend to the lymphatic system or from cancer in the other part of body to the determine the preferred treatment of lung cancer, by surgery, or surgery with chemotherapy. for this analysis data obtained from the doctor specialist in Lung cancer through ratio percentages success of treatment , and by [Stirling's and Aitken interpolation formula] we formulated, firstly two(equations) or models for (surgery with chemotherapy treatments) with the fourth and third degrees , and Secondly, another two equations for (surgery treatments ) with second degree , this confirms that surgery with chemotherapy is preferred treatment of lung cancer patients, and since the Stirling interpolation equation in the fourth degree emphasize that it is the most appropriate formula for bio-statistical analyses. by Cox and Snell R-Square in both treatments refer to good ratio and in the statistical analysis, the model fitting criteria in both analyzes the p-values emphasize the best fit of the models indicates perfect prediction. Improvement.</p> Nazeera Sedeeq Al-Barznji , Duaa Faiz Abdullah, Rezan Sedeeq Kareem, Bikhal Samad Sedeeq Copyright (c) 2024 Nazeera Sedeeq Al-Barznji , Duaa Faiz Abdullah, Rezan Sedeeq Kareem, Bikhal Samad Sedeeq Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Quality of The Education System for Orphanage Children Between Motivation and Future Building in Irbil City <p>A healthy family can progress the successful individuals for society also for themselves. However, sometimes the family will be broken, in this case, the most harmful member is a child who becomes an orphan. This study aims to find out several motivational factors which help orphans to build their future life. Also, it tries to evaluate the quality of education for orphans which follows some structure that influences their welling to access the teaching process. This study is the descriptive quantitative method which takes 112 orphans randomly as samples that include grate 10th,11th, and 12th in Erbil city. The findings reveal that the family is a powerful factor in motivating children to be successful in the current and the future. Therefore, it shows that rather than they have faced many difficulties in their life still they think about the best future and they believe that life is an intelligent challenge so we never give up on our dreams. In addition, the result reveals some negative points such as most of them feel of inequality between orphans and non-orphans in the society. The result illustrates that most of them become dissatisfied when they have many requirements but nobody supports them. On the other hand, also they give up on school motivation because they think it does not meet all requirements. However, this study finds that the majority of samples trust the teachers as they are understandable educators.</p> <p> </p> Korazon Talib Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 Korazon Talib Abdullah Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 You Scratch my Back, and I'll Scratch Yours: Feedback and Recommendation on Freelance Translators Recruitment <p>Professional translation is now mostly conducted in virtual teams, or production networks, where freelance translators and language service providers (LSPs) communicate via increasingly computerized means. This study examined how feedback are left on profiles and specifically to find extent to which these feedbacks have been manipulated by having a prior agreement with each other (the translation agency and freelancer translator). This study was a multiple-case study since it covered Upwork and, and an ethnographic was employed since a cultural context was used for the identification of the websites. and Upwork were chosen to investigate and collect the data as both are the most effective websites for freelancers among all other workplace websites. Unstructured observation and semi-structured interviews were carried out for the data collection. The results showed that the vast majority of the feedback on profiles have been biased. In most cases, a settlement between the translation agency and freelancers was made before leaving the feedback. In other words, the feedback should not be depended on when a freelance translator needs to work for a company and vice versa.</p> Hemn Mohammed Ali Mahmood Copyright (c) 2024 Hemn Mohammed Ali Mahmood Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Corruption and Iraq Banks Performance: Expanding the “Grease or Sand the Wheel” Hypothesis <p>The main goal of the study is to investigate the effect of corruption on the profitability of Iraqi banks during the period 2012–2020. The paper used a sample of nine private banks that account for a considerable proportion of the overall assets of the Iraqi commercial banks. The advanced technique of method of moment quantile regression (MMQREG) is used. To validate the initial results, we use the feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) and panel-corrected standard errors (PCSEs) techniques. Our results support the ‘grease or sand the wheel’ hypothesis of corruption for Iraqi banks. This finding supports the view that the current weak governance structures and the power-sharing political system in the country serve as an ‘escape hatch’ for individuals in power. Furthermore, the findings of the PCSE and FGLS validated the MMQREG results in terms of coefficient sign. Correspondingly, income and inflation are shown to be positive drivers of ROAA. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that Iraqi banks are not getting any benefit from economies of scale regarding financial performance. On the other hand, our results reveal that the ratio of cost income has a statistically significant negative effect on bank profitability, implying that Iraqi private banks are operating below their optimal capacity.</p> Hatem Hatef Abdulkadhim Altaee, Munadhil Abduljabar Alsalim, Naz Hiwa Ghani Copyright (c) 2024 Hatem Hatef Abdulkadhim Altaee, Munadhil Abduljabar Alsalim, Naz Hiwa Ghani Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Kurdish EFL Students' Perceptions towards AI-Powered Platforms for Learning English Grammar <p>The accelerated advancements of AI have extended to all the areas of learning English as a foreign language, including grammar learning. This study aims at investigating Kurdish EFL students’ perceptions and perceived feelings towards the use of AI-powered platforms for learning and improving English grammar. It additionally aims to explore whether the students can master English grammar solely through the use of AI-powered platforms, in absence of the traditional learning methods of grammar. This study employs a quantitative research approach administering a survey questionnaire to 118 Kurdish EFL students at Salahaddin University. The findings point out that the Kurdish EFL students perceive AI-powered platforms as good means for improving English grammar proficiency and they hold a favorable feeling towards the platforms. The findings further showcase that the students believe that they cannot master English grammar by relying solely on the AI-powered platforms. They rather find AI-powered platforms more effective when they are integrated into the traditional learning methods of grammar.</p> Nawsha Ghaleb Shareef Copyright (c) 2024 Nawsha Ghaleb Shareef Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300