Zanco Journal of Human Sciences <p>ISSN (Print):<strong>2218-0222</strong> </p> <p>ISSN (Online): <strong>2412-396X</strong></p> <p>DOI:<strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> en-US <p>Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licenced<br />under a <a title=" Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY- 4.0)</a></p> (Management Staff) (Support) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 06:49:20 +0000 OJS 60 ‘Bandi’ as an Unknown Classical Poet <p>Looking back is the strength for the present and the foundation for in novation. Although Kurdish poets have moved away from the classical path for a long time and Kurdish poetry has passed through several other stages, this study shows that there are poets, even if they are individuals Nowadays, they compose classical poetry and follow the classical path the discovery of the works of a classical poet is now equally important in introducing them to Kurdish readers, writers and enriching the poetry of our national literature. Especially in Hiran town and Khoshnawti area. Because it still contains many raw materials that no one has realized or created, to reach out to, to rescue them from the frame work of oblivion and unknown and unwritten work, so this is considered the first academic work. It can be said that after a careful investigation and a lot of effort, we were able to obtain a handful of classical poems of the poet (Bandi) and make it the content of our research. Although Bandy is poems have not been collected in a book, this has led to a few pieces of poetry that do not exceed the fingertips. In this research, we have made the stages of the poet’s life and the characteristics of his poems, in terms of form and content, the essence of the research. We have followed a historical and descriptive approach to organize the work.</p> Umed Aziz Mstafa Copyright (c) 2024 Umed Aziz Mstafa Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial Analysis of The Cities' Network Characteristics in The Mountainous and Semi-Mountainous Territories of Iraq – A Comparative Study <p>The study aims to demonstrate the cities' network properties in the mountainous and semi-mountainous in Iraq and compare them. It relied on inductive and comparative approaches with the analytical methods. It was divided into study area, methods, urban and demographic evolution, and results and discussion. The study reached several conclusions, which is that natural conditions, particularly topography, played a significant role in the variation in the cities' network characteristics in the study area, including high urbanization degree in the mountainous region. The majority of the urban mountainous population is concentrated in one large city, Sulaymaniyah. However, in the semi-mountainous region, this percentage was distributed among three large cities: Mosul, Kirkuk, and Erbil. The network of cities in the semi-mountainous region exhibits greater complexity and imbalance compared to the mountainous region. Political, administrative, and socio-economic factors worsened the influence of natural factors on the variation in city network characteristics between mountainous and semi-mountainous areas.</p> Kamaran Wali Mahmood Copyright (c) 2024 Kamaran Wali Mahmood Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Fantasticism in the Novel‘Feathers’ by (Salim Barakat) <p>The narrative works of the Syrian Kurdish writer (Salim Barakat) are characterized by their fantastical nature in every aspect of their narrative, as they are fantastical in their narration, description, events, characters, and dialogue, and even in their intense metaphorical poetic language that does not easily surrender itself to the recipient. Among these novels is the novel (feathers), which deals with painful events. The repeated events that the Kurdish people go through, until it became a boring routine for the Kurdish individual: because they are similar in their events in introduction and as a result, they are recurring and similar revolutions in everything, especially in their tragic endings: as all these revolutions are fraught with failure, and with the beheadings of their symbols by the enemies. So, the Kurdish individual became desperate, languishing in his psychological shell created by these circumstances, which became a theme for most of Barakat’s novels, so he presents them in his works through fantastic texts that dizzy the readers’ lost heads between the alleys of its mysterious lines, the world of its events that lack rational logical connection, and intertwined narrative times. In a way that distracts the recipient between its present, its recalls and its anticipations, and the space that the narrator quickly moves like lightning between its spectra through the stream of consciousness and daydreaming in a way that makes it difficult to distinguish between the real space of the events in which the narrator stands in his immediate moment, and the imaginary places that only the feet of the narrator’s imagination have treaded. These issues and others he want The researcher, through this study, approached it and delved into its depths to extract the elements of the fantastic in the studied novel</p> Ali Abdulrahman Fattah Copyright (c) 2024 Ali Abdulrahman Fattah Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Reflection of the Kurdish Issue in The French Newspaper Le Monde <p> Since its founding in 1944, the French Newspaper Le Monde has been one of the most influential journalistic centers, as it has allocated appropriate space to the Kurdish issue. This is done using information from various sources, such as the French news agencies AFP, the American news agency Reuters, the Soviet news agencies TASS, or the media channels of the Iraqi government and the Kurdish revolution. Sometimes the newspaper's correspondents in European and American capitals and in the Middle East prepared reports on this issue. As a result, the newspaper was able to play an important role in introducing the Kurdish issue to influential international political centers and became an important source for research.This research, entitled (Reflection of the Kurdish issue in the French Newspaper Le Monde 1961-1968), consists of an introduction and five sections. The first section discusses the beginnings of presenting the Kurdish issue in Le Monde newspaper, and the second section focuses on the reflection of the Kurdish issue in the newspaper during the era of Abdul Karim (1958-1963). In the third section, for the same purpose as the previous section, there was a brief discussion of the period of the Sufi brothers (1963-1968). In addition to the fourth topic, international solidarity for the Kurdish issue is presented, and in the fifth topic of the study, the position of Le Monde newspaper on the same issue in Iraq is devoted to a special discussion. Finally, we concluded that Le Monde newspaper played a role in introducing the Kurdish issue to the international community and influential political decision-making centers.</p> Qaraman Haidar Rahman , Ismail Abdullah Ismail Copyright (c) 2024 Qaraman Haidar Rahman , Ismail Abdullah Ismail Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Kurdish Issue in The Israeli Newspaper Davar (1970-1975) <p>Davar newspaper is one of the most important Israeli newspapers since its founding in 1925, which devoted a large amount of space to the Kurdish issue. This is done using information from various sources, such as the Associated Press, or the media channels of the Iraqi government and the Kurdish revolution, including the Voice of Iraqi Kurdistan. Sometimes the newspaper's correspondents in European and American capitals and in the Middle East, such as Beirut and Tehran, prepare press reports on the subject. To this end, important work has been done by the newspaper's writers and correspondents, such as Ehud Yaari, Sovir Davar, Jack Murray, Dietrich Strootmann, and Poror Sheinberg. The importance of this article is that it presents the Kurdish issue from the perspective of the best-selling newspaper in Israel. During this historical period, the country was in a political and military conflict with Arab countries in general, and especially with Iraq and Syria, which included part of the Kurdish regions within their borders. The reason for writing the article is the lack of any scientific research on the position of the Israeli press on the Kurdish issue, at a time when the issue was of great importance to the international press during this historical period. It is clear that in this study we are working to answer a question, which is the consequences of the political position of the Israeli press on the Jewish community, especially the Kurds in this country, many of whom were originally from Iraqi Kurdistan after 1948 and moved to Israel.</p> Qaraman Haidar Rahman , Noshirwan Sharif Saeed Copyright (c) 2024 Qaraman Haidar Rahman , Noshirwan Sharif Saeed Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Economic Analytical Study of The Reality of Expatriate Workers for The Period (2017 - 2022) (Dohuk Governorate as An Example) <p>This research aims to analyze the reality of expatriate workers in Dohuk Governorate for the period (2017 - 2022), and data was obtained from the Directorate of Labor and Social Security in the governorate. To achieve the research goal, we used the descriptive analysis approach with regard to the demographic, economic and social characteristics of expatriate workers, and it became clear to us that the private sector in the region prefers expatriate workers due to their lower wages compared to the wages of local workers. One of the most important results we reached is that in 2022, the percentage of expatriate workers reached 27% due to the improvement in the economic and health situation. In 2020, the lowest employment rate reached 11% due to the repercussions of the Corona virus. The demand for female labor increased in 2022, reaching 89% compared to males, 11% for the same year. As for the age groups of expatriate workers, the highest percentage was recorded in the group (30-35) years, reaching 28%, while the lowest percentage was recorded in the age group (54-59). year and amounted to 5%. As for expatriate workers, according to the most important sending countries, Turkey ranked first and recorded the highest percentage in 2017 and reached 43%. In 2022, Ghana recorded the highest percentage and reached 24% compared to other countries. As for financial remittances to expatriate workers, they amounted to $400,550 in the year 2022, according to World Bank reports showing high unemployment rates in sending countries. Georgia had the highest unemployment rates, at 11.3%, followed by Nepal, Iran, and Turkey, at 11.1%, 11%. 10%, respectively. Unemployment rates in the region reached (16.5), the highest unemployment rates in Dohuk Governorate reached (24.1) (Kurdistan Region Statistics Authority). One of the most important proposals is the regional government’s attempt to address the problem of unemployment in Dohuk Governorate and the necessity of replacing expatriate workers with local workers.</p> Khamy Nasir Rusheed Copyright (c) 2024 Khamy Nasir Rusheed Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Description in the Novel ‘The Ladies of Saturn’ by Lutfia Al-Dulaimi <p>This study endeavors to investigate the technique of description in the novel “The Ladies of Saturn” as one of the narrative techniques used by the author. Critics and scholars often viewed this technique negatively when compared to other techniques, especially narration. Furthermore, this research intends to investigate the ethods of its use, its patterns, and its role in adding connotations to the overall narrative level of the novel. The significance of this research lies in clarifying the pivotal role that description plays, contrary to its misconception being limited to marginal functions, and its inability to dirve the course of plot. In addition to its prevalence throughout the novel, the novelist - Lutfiya Al-Dulaimi – vividly porrtrays post-fall of Baghdad, aiming to capture through his words, the devistation and collapse that the city has experienced. This study seeks to elucidate the multifaceted role of description, highlighting its ability to perform various functions simultaneously. It does not disrupt the reader’s engagement, nor does it impede the narrative’s unless it fails to serve its purpose. If it were a disruptive as some critics have imagined, it could be dispensable. Thus, this study attempts to underscore the true value of this technique and illustrates its aesthetic qualities.</p> Jamal Sulaiman Mustafa Copyright (c) 2024 Jamal Sulaiman Mustafa Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Problem of Naming Dimensions and Distances in Musical Scales <p>The research deals with the problem of naming dimensions and distances in musical scales, and it is a descriptive study. During this study, researchers present new proposals to rename this dimension. First, the researchers presented all the ancient names that were used. Then, for each old name, a new name was proposed by the researchers. This new formula was verified according to several scientific and academic methods. The importance of this study is for students of colleges and institutes of fine arts to get rid of the problem of confusion between these names and their problems. The aim of this study is to identify and rename the types of dimensions and distances into two types of quantities, namely, quantitative amounts and qualitative amounts. The quantitative amount indicates the number of degrees separating two tones, and the qualitative amount indicates the number of distances, their types and quarters, that is, determining the distance, or the distance.</p> Amanj Ghazee Shaker Agha, Surwd Fuad Mohammed Sarraj Copyright (c) 2024 Amanj Ghazee Shaker Agha, Surwd Fuad Mohammed Sarraj Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Voice of Kurdistan Radio in Supporting the Gullan Revolution (An Analytical Historical Study) <p>This research aims to delineate the involvement of Radio Voice of Kurdistan during the Gulan Revolution (1976-1991) in fostering and galvanizing support for the revolution, urging the Kurdish population to safeguard their homeland and national sovereignty. Despite the contemporary proliferation of mass media channels, radio, as a prominent medium, retains its global familiarity and continues to wield influence in delivering media services. Historically, radio has not only served as a source of artistic programs, music, narratives, and radio dramas but has also played a pivotal role in news dissemination, investigative reporting, and coverage of events including wars, armed conflicts, national uprisings, and articulation of the political stances of nations, organizations, and political parties. In this context, this study seeks to investigate and elucidate the specific role Radio Voice of Kurdistan played in supporting the Gulan Revolution, ultimately assessing the magnitude of its contribution to the revolution and the Kurdish people's quest for liberation during this decisive and transformative epoch. Because it has worked oppossite a number of media institutions with unlimited human and material capacity. Knowledge of the radio's efforts in how to manage itself and its competition with the media, which consisted of hundreds of media institutions of the then Iraqi government are part of the content of the study.</p> Sirwan Mahmood Rasheed Rasheed , Mohammed Kareem Saeed Copyright (c) 2024 Sirwan Mahmood Rasheed Rasheed , Mohammed Kareem Saeed Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Improvisation and Artistic Performance in Kurdish Song Forms <p>The primary objective of this study is to explore the improvisational traditions and artistic expressions in Kurdish music. The fundamental elements shaping the musical structure of Kurdish songs are the characteristics of improvisation and performance. In the realm of Kurdish art, and specifically within the domains of music and song, improvisation and singing performance hold significant importance, whether the musical context is formal or popular. This investigation delves into the artistic positioning of improvisation within folk songs and traditional music, presenting it in an engaging and diverse manner that transcends established musical styles and norms. Essentially, it manifests as a liberated form of innovation and creativity, with improvisation standing out as a prominent feature within Eastern music. Both improvisation and performance have been integral components of musical arts for centuries, extending from the Middle Ages and pre-music notation era to contemporary times. The art of improvisation relies on memory and immediate, spontaneous performance, showcasing its enduring relevance in the evolution of musical expression.</p> Amanj Ghaze Shaker Agha Copyright (c) 2024 Amanj Ghaze Shaker Agha Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Linguistic Opinions According to Al-Rawasi in The Interpretations of Ibn Atiyya Al-Andalusi, Al-Qurtubi, And Abu Hayyan Al-Andalusi <p> </p> <p>The most frequent opinions of Al-Rawasi in these interpretations were in the interpretation of Al-Qurtubi, and there were five opinions in the chapter of decisiveness, the prevention of morphology, the construction of the object, the severance, the link, the reduction and the stress, and then comes the second rank the opinions of Al-Rawasi in the interpretation of Ibn Attia, and there were three opinions, which are the accusative on temptation, assertion, severance and connection, and it was the least of them It is mentioned in the interpretation of Abi Hayyan, which is the pieces, the connection, and the fusion, and this indicates the frequent citation of the opinions of Al-Rawasi at Al-Qurtubi in his interpretation compared to the interpretations of Ibn Attia and Abi Hayyan</p> Israa Yaseen Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 Israa Yaseen Hassan Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The First Set of Arabicized Kurdish Words in The Holy Qur'an – An Analytical Study <p>The issue of the existence of the Arabicized words is an ancient issue has divided the specialists into two groups. There are some scholars who deny the existence and some who see no problem in their existence. Nevertheless, there are some scholars who consider the existence of the Arabicized words as a Quranic miracle. The present study deals with this and many other related issues namely the benefits and wisdoms in the existence of the Arabicized words in the Glorious Quran. This study can also be considered a breakthrough in the field in that it talks about those Quranic Arabicized words which are originally Kurdish words, (i.e., Kurdish Arabicized words). So far, no one has ever talked or even referred to this fact. Despite the existence of the factors of efficacy and influence among which the contiguity from which relation and contact are born, the contiguity and closeness between the Kurds and the Arabs, as it can be concluded from one of the well-known elegiac poems of Malik bin Al-Rayb (died in 56 AH = 676 AD), is very ancient. Thus, the Kurdish language is one of the languages from which the Arabic language has borrowed and arabicized some words. On the basis of this fact, this present research has summarized those Arabicized words which are regarded as common words between Arabic, Persian and other languages whose relation and influence factors are not as much as that which exists between Arabic and Kurdish languages. The Kurdish Arabicized words are thus: 1- al-abarig, 2- al-istabraq, 3- al-tannur, 4- al-junah.</p> Faiz Abubakir Qader Copyright (c) 2024 Faiz Abubakir Qader Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Sheikh Omar bin Badr Al-Mawsili Al-Kurdi (557-622 AH) and His Hadithiya Efforts <p>Our Kurdish scholars have played a significant role in various fields and sciences throughout Islamic history, contributing to the advancement of Islamic civilization. Among these scholars is Sheikh Omar bin Badr Al-Mawsili, a prominent figure in the sixth and seventh century AH. His notable contributions lie in the field of the noble sayings of the Prophet, where he dedicated himself to refining, condensing, and collecting authentic hadiths. In pursuit of this goal, he authored an independent book, "Combining the Two Sahihs," amalgamating the hadiths of Imam al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim. The book, organized alphabetically, facilitates easy access for students and scholars. Moreover, Sheikh Omar cautioned against weak and fabricated hadiths attributed to the Messenger of God, writing two books to raise awareness about these fabrications. Beyond his efforts in hadith, he played a crucial role in teaching and explaining Islamic law, earning recognition as one of the leading Hanafi jurists of his time. Sheikh Omar taught in various Hanafi schools across Islamic cities and countries.</p> Luqman Samad Khudhur Copyright (c) 2024 Luqman Samad Khudhur Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Academic Institutions in Meeting Banking Market The Practical Study Depending on Academic Leaders Opinions in Colleges of Administration & Economics of Erbil City <p> The Banks have an energetic role in the field of business and financing, human resource in this field is an important factor for success. So, it is necessary to know the market in which the supplier or banking labor can be obtained and qualified to work and perform banking activities with the standards and characteristics required in the banking field. This research is trying to detarmine the role of academic Institutions in meeting the needs of the banking market. To reach the aims of the study, a questionnaire form distributed on academic leaders in the Universities of Erbil from the specializations of the departments of Business Administration, Accounting, Financial and Banking Sciences. They are returned (60) leaders, (46) questionnaire returned, that is (76%) of them. Used statistical software (SPSS) to analyze the practical part of the study.The study got number of results, appeared that academic media play a key role in qualifying human cadres for the banking market, as well as Universities and Educational Institutes can provide students necessity knowledge and developIng technical skills to work in banking sector and there is impact of Academic Institutions and its dimension on Banks Labour Market. The Study suggests that Universities need to focus on the dimension of education and academic leaders should adapting renewable environment and banking needs and using modern technologies in the teaching process suitable for banking.</p> Kamal Sulaiman Ibrahim; Shkur Majeed Hameed, Kosret Muhemed Ebabekir Copyright (c) 2024 Kamal Sulaiman Ibrahim; Shkur Majeed Hameed, Kosret Muhemed Ebabekir Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Hiring Students: Via Collaboration between Erbil Polytechnic University and General Private Business Sectors in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq <p>This study aims to make the students career. Moreover, it tries to investigate the university’s responsibility for its students so as to inspire them through academic methods. The method used in the present study is qualitative research. The researcher has interviewed two different groups of people. Academic staff in EPU university that consists of 10 people who are theoretically dealing with that matter. However, the second group consists of 6 leaders among different companies in Erbil. The result shows that the capacity for learning and ability for doing this collaboration are the most important factors for both groups. Moreover, financial problems, high quality of students, and their experiences in a specific different field are the highlighted points for two set of participants. Although, it shows that the most important requirements for them is the students’ language proficiency and their skills. Also, both groups have some dissimilar opinions concerning university attempts to appoint the students permanently as employees. The business sectors emphasize on accepting them as volunteers</p> Korazon Talib Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 Korazon Talib Abdullah Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring and Analyzing the Impact of Some Macroeco-nomic Variables on Exports in Emerging Countries for 2000-2020: A Panel Data Analysis <p>This study examines the impact of some macroeconomic variables and exports in emerging economies from 2000 to 2020. Using panel data analysis, they investigate how fluctuations in exchange rates, inflation, and interest rates influence the exports of diverse emerging economies. They estimate these effects by employing panle regression, fixed effects, and random effects models and employing statistical tests to select the appropriate model. Our analysis uncovers significant variations in how exchange rates, inflation, and interest rates impact exports across emerging economies. The Fixed Effects Model proves most suitable, highlighting individual-specific effects that shape each country's export behaviours. Changes in exchange rates were linked to decreased exports, indicating a negative relationship. Similarly, alterations in interest rates showed a negative correlation with exports, suggesting that higher interest rates were associated with lower export levels. Conversely, fluctuations in inflation rates demonstrated a positive connection with exports, implying that increased inflation rates were linked to higher export volumes. This study contributes to our comprehension of how macroeconomic factors influence exports in emerging economies, providing valuable insights for policymakers, trade professionals, and researchers aiming to strengthen export competitiveness and sustainability.</p> Mohammed Mustafa Braim Hassan, Hewa Othman Ismael, Idrees Ramadhan Haji Copyright (c) 2024 Mohammed Mustafa Braim Hassan, Hewa Othman Ismael, Idrees Ramadhan Haji Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Stochastic Analysis to Calculate the Mean Time to System Failure (MTSF) of A Two Identical Unit Parallel System <p>In this research two identical parallel electric generators with repair a failed one have been analyzed stochastically by two methods, first by method based on certain probability assumptions and second through three state Markov chain, classified as one recurrent ( absorbing ) state and two transient states. For the purpose of this study the data about the failure and repair time intervals of electric generators of the months november and december 2022 are obtained from the electricians of several places in Erbil city, whereas they supplied electricity to their lanes whenever the national electric power is interrupted. This research aimed to define the mean time to system failure by the two previous methods.</p> Bestun Merza Abdulkareem Copyright (c) 2024 Bestun Merza Abdulkareem Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Electronic Brainstorming on Irregular Auditing Practicespractices an Analytical Study of The Opinions of a Sample of Auditors in The City of Erbil <p>The study aimed to identify the extent to which electronic brainstorming contributes to reducing the improvised audit, which occurs as a result of the non-implementation of audit procedures by the auditor and obtaining unreliable evidence in addition to the presence of several pressures on the auditor, and the research deals with the impact of electronic brainstorming sessions carried out by auditors in reducing the occurrence of improvised auditing, and for the purpose of achieving the research objective, the researchers organized the questionnaire form and distributed it to a sample of Auditors in the city of Erbil and analyzed through the statistical program (SPSS), the research has reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which is that it has a statistically significant impact in the application of electronic brainstorming on the planning stage of the audit process as well as in the stage of implementing audit procedures, and in the end the researchers recommend the application of electronic brainstorming sessions throughout the audit process by auditors, because it improves the performance of auditors and thus does not occur improvised audit.</p> <p> </p> Jarjees Mustafa Khdeer, Zaito Awla Abubakr, Rezan Salahaddin Azzat Copyright (c) 2024 Jarjees Mustafa Khdeer, Zaito Awla Abubakr, Rezan Salahaddin Azzat Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mortals and Immortals’ Conflict in Tad Williams's The Heart of What was Lost <h5>Conflict is a literary element that can be defined as a continuous struggle between two opposite forces, it has two main types which are external and internal conflicts. The novel under study is an epic fantasy set in Williams's legendary world of Osten Ard. It depicts the conflict between mortals and fairy people; serving a continuation of prior events between these two races.The aim of the study is to explore the way Williams portrays conflict with its different types to reflect the negative consequences of war. The study is also an attempt to show how these conflicts reflect the agonies and ethical challenges of characters, and that war can only bring decay and shadow. It can be concluded that war results in different types of conflicts and, each of which lead to gloomy ends, to achieve this the text is thoroughly analyzed.</h5> Aveen Arshad Faris Copyright (c) 2024 Aveen Arshad Faris Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Critical Discourse Analysis of Ideology in Judy Blume’s “Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing” <p>This paper employs critical discourse analysis to examine the ideology present in Judy Blume's "Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing." Critical discourse analysis offers a robust analytical framework for exploring the interplay between discourse and ideology, shedding light on how ideologies are generated, reflected, and contested through language use. This paper endeavors to conduct a rigorous examination of ideology, seeking to offer a nuanced comprehension of the underlying ideologies present in the text mentioned above. The primary objective is to elucidate the potential ramifications of these ideologies for the prospect of instigating meaningful social change. <br />This study acknowledges the pivotal role of discourse in not only acquiring but also perpetuating ideologies. It delves into the specific mechanisms through which discourse can challenge and subsequently modify prevailing ideological frameworks, recognizing the intricate interplay between language and the evolution of societal beliefs. By engaging in this analysis, the paper contributes to the broader academic discourse on the importance of ideology in children's literature, highlighting the significance of examining and critiquing the ideologies embedded within such texts. Ultimately, this study aims to promote inclusive, diverse, and socially conscious literature that empowers young readers and contributes to a more equitable and just society through learned lessons caused by hidden ideologies in the specific story “Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing.”</p> <p> </p> Binin Mustafa Saeed Copyright (c) 2024 Binin Mustafa Saeed Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000