Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences <p>ISSN (Print):<strong>2218-0222</strong>, ISSN (Online): <strong>2412-396X</strong>, DOI:<strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Management Staff) (Support) Thu, 22 Dec 2022 07:19:58 +0000 OJS 60 Educational Novel and The Way of Its Appearance in Kurdish Novels <p>This research, which is entitled "Educational Novel and The Way of Its Appearance in Kurdish Novels", part of which is derived from the MA thesis. There is a reference in this study to the educational subjects and field. As a general topic, which is related to human life, the way this subject is reflected has been shown in a kind of literature known as the novel genre and it is within the boundaries of Kurdish literature.</p> <p>In general, this research works on the content of the text and it is a way to show the educational dimensions and ethical values besides their existence in the content of the Kurdish novel text. Education is an active phenomenon that mainly participates in the existence and survival of human beings. It is related to the beginnings of human life and started began at the first moment of human life. Then based on the reaction principle and after the creation of society and various socialization life the theoretical education comes in a non-programmatic and practical way. after the creation of the life. Thus, education gradually gets embodied within a scientific, literary and art system.</p> <p>In this research, the connection between education and literature has been discussed and the duty of literature in the process of education as well as depicting the dimensions and types of education are highlighted. There is also to a reference to the function of the genre of novel from this perspective and within this frame. A glance is given to the styles and types of education according to the types of Kurdish novel.</p> Muhammed Baker Muhammed, Chra Bilal Nader Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The embodiment of the foundations of symbolism in the poetry collection One Hundred and One Nights in the poems of Sabah Ranjdar <p>The symbolic doctrine was established since the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century on several intellectual and linguistic foundations that differ in terms of concept and symbolic employment from the classical symbolism that is concerned with the external world of man, while the symbolic doctrine emphasizes the depths of the human soul as the focus of any modern project, so we see elements such as (Dream and imagination, pessimism, linguistic complexity, ambiguity and ambiguity, musical language and subjectivity) are embodied significantly in the product of the poets of the doctrine, and we decided to give this aspect our attention in this research entitled (Embodiment of the foundations of symbolism in the poetic group One Thousand and One Nights in the poems of Sabah Ranjdar ) As one of the modernist poets in the current stage of Kurdish poetry, where the poet was interested in this diwan with the symbol and expanded a lot in employing the most important foundations of symbolism in his poems.</p> Shrmen Ibrahim Azeez, Muhammed Bakir Muhammed Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Grammatical Bound Morphemes of Nouns in Kurdish and English languages: A Comparative Study <p> This is a comparative study aimed at the grammatical bound morphemes of nouns of Kurdish and English languages. It attempts to demonstrate grammatical bound morphemes of nouns in both languages. Apart from an introduction and conclusion, the study includes these parts: bound morphemes, types of bound morphemes (Affix, clitics, base) the grammatical bound morphemes of nouns in Kurdish and English languages. At the end, it has been stated the most important similarities and differences in grammatical bound morphemes of nouns in both languages.</p> Omed Samad Ahmad, Badrkhan Suleiman Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The alienation in the new diaspora literature Novels of Inaam Kajaji as a sample <p>The Arab countries were subject to the deterioration of the political, security and economic conditions, which prompted many writers and thinkers to western countries, especially Europe, and thus formed a new genre of literature, known as the new diaspora literature. This was since the eighties of the twentieth century, expressing the bitterness of alienation and moving away from the homeland and nostalgia. It is one of the most important elements of this literature.</p> Amal Elias Badal, Yadgar Lateef Jamsheer Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Female Journalists in the Kurdish media – the Historical Research about the Journalist’s Female of Erbil <p>The research entitled (The role of female journalists in the Kurdish media – the historical research about the journalist’s female of Erbil). This research has examined the hidden sides of writer females and the role of female journalists in the Kurdish media history of Erbil. One of the causes was that, doesn’t distinguish between female writers and female journalists, also female journalists in Erbil haven’t focused particularly. The research is a historical study and has used descriptive methodology. The research is important for journalists and media departments, also to correct the Kurdish media history and the Kurdish female journalists in Erbil. In conclusion, the first female Kurdish journalist appeared in Erbil at the beginning of 1950 in the “Hawler” newspaper.</p> <p> </p> Saman Jalal Mawlood Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The narrative story and intertwining arts in Sinjar Captives by Saleem Barakat <p>This research which is entitled as “The narrative story and intertwining arts in <em>Sinjar Captives</em> by Saleem Barakat” discusses a new topic. It is about the mixture of novel with painting in (Sinjar Captives). The novelist relies on famous portraits to clarify his ideas and construct the theme of his novel. He narrates several famous worldly paintings instead of narrating the incidents of his thoughts. He describes such paintings instead of narrating the incidents or thoughts of his mind. He describes them the way the narrator narrates scenes, incidents, or characters in the novel.</p> <p> He sheds a light on the monstrous and cruel way that the young girls who have been treated in Sinjar, clarifying the bloody authority of Syrians. His novel is in ten chapters. Each chapter shows a famous worldly painting and each has special plot different from the previous and the following one. The writer creates a wonderful, fantastic world full of terrors, murders, bloods and cruel incidents. The paintings are separated, but are concerned with the human tragedy along history. The narrator transforms color language to word language through poetic language in most of the pages with poetry in a way that the spectator or the reader feels as if he is reading a poem and not a novel in prose.</p> Ali Abdulrahman Fattah Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reading for Three Criticism Works, in Farhang Weekly journal, in the Viewpoints of Critical Theory of Criticism <p>The study is entitled ‘’Reading for Three Criticism Works, in Farhang Weekly journal, in the Viewpoints of Critical Theory of Criticism’’, it consists of the introduction and two sections: section one is theoretical background, it includes five topics of critical theory of criticism, the first is about the theory itself, the second is about the terminologies of the theory, the third is about the objectives of the theory, the fourth is the role and importance of the critical theory of criticism in enhancing the text and literary criticism, the fifth is about the history of rising of critical theory of criticism in literary criticism in the West, Arab and Kurdish literature. While the second section is practical, it is the implementation of some Kurdish Examples in the Farhang Weekly Journal, which is an intellectual Critical journal. Then, the most important concluding points are displayed. The references are adequately ordered. Finally, the abstracts in Arabic and English are provided. </p> Karwan Idrees Majeed, Karzan Mohsen Qadir Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Method of Historian Fuad Sazgin in his book (GAS) <p>The historian Mohammed Fuad Sazgin (1924-2018) has many scientific masterpieces in the field of writing the history of Islamic culture. He has a special scientific method in writing (History of Arab culture) which was one of his scientific projects. In this eighteen-volume project of Sazgin, The historian researcher notes that the author used several methods including descriptive, analytical and comparative methods to show historical facts and identify scientific sources, and with these methods he was able to show the place of Muslim scientists in the history of science, Compare them with the rank of scientists of other civilizations, He could also compare the ideas, inventions and science of other civilizational scientists, With these methods revealed many hidden historical facts in the history of science. In this reseach, only the comparative method will be discussed and the results of this method will be presented. It will include comparing the manuscripts of Muslim scholars with those of Western scholars and exposing fraud in translation activities, using comparative methods to compare the ideas of scholars of Greek civilization, Islamic civilization and Western civilization, in most branches of science.</p> Mabast Burhan Qadir, Tareq Mohammed Awrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Application of the RUSLE model to estimate water erosion in the southwestern basins of Akre Mountain <p> The process of water erosion assessment and determining its levels is one of the necessary steps in watersheds managment. Through the process, it is possible to determine the areas exposed to water erosion and its severity, and then put in place protective measures to reduce its focus and mitigate its effects. Soil erosion is exacerbated by heavy rainfall after a long period of dry seasons, steep slopes, intensive cultivation, and a lack of appropriate soil conservation measures. This study aimed to apply the RUSLE model to estimate the potential annual rate of erosion in the southwestern basins of Akre mountain and determine its levels in order to determine the initial priorities for management and conservation practices the results of applying the model showed that the potential annual erosion rate in the study area ranged between 0.02 - 278 (tons/ ‎hectares/ year) and a rate of 20.7 (tons / hectares / year). In general, about 52.8% of total study area has a level of slight-moderate ‎erosion, and that about 38.4% of the study area was affected by moderate-severe erosion, while the area of the severe-very severe ‎erosion category amounted to more than 8.9%, which is represented the lands of It is mountainous and their slopes, with an average slope ‎of more than 18 degrees, as in the mountains of Akre and Denarta.‎</p> Hozan Sadiq Mawlood, Hikmat Abdulazez Hamad Al-Hussainy Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Kurds in The Encyclopedia of Islam (Method and Information Sources (132-656) (750-1258) <p>. As it is known since the 19th century, the history and historian of the more developed scientific path in the frame of only the past and collecting and collecting information has been evaluated for Criticizing and analyzing the data with the method of scientific research and decreasing the information gained the value of its science in other sciences. In addition, orientalism and eastern works and products, as another phenomenon, proved the importance of eastern history and eastern civilizations by historical researchers and scientific and literary centers, but easternism is beyond that argument. open and can be done about the refineries and incentives in the activities of foreign and western orientalists that are evaluated and appreciated from the different poles but gradually the eastern field was getting wider and richer , part of the khurmani The information collected and recorded by the Orientalists themselves was printed and published within the framework of encyclopedias, including the (Islamic Encyclopedia), which provides us with a source of rich information about the history and civilization of the people. Islamic and Eastern, which is involved in the dissemination of more information and knowledge about eastern history in general and the Islamic era in particular, is certainly part of what it is like in the Islamic era because of the development of historical writing and protection. The information was available as original materials, sources, and detailed and accurate information records to benefit Western writers and researchers and make them the basis and raw materials available for writing and preparing The Ensclopedia of Islam. </p> Hakeem Ahmed Mambakr , Tara Mohammed Khdir Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The novel (Europe Hotel) by Farhad Pirbal in the perspective of cultural criticism <p>This research under the title of (Farhad Pirbal's Novel (Hotel Europe) from the perspective of cultural criticism), an attempt to show and reveal the hidden texts in the novel, cultural criticism is one of the new theoretical trends in the world of literary criticism Yes, our research consists of introductions and two sections, the first part is specific to the theoretical side. In this section, we have tried to focus carefully on the concept, definition and history of the cultural criticism, and the definition of cultural impurity and insufficiency, and the second part is specific to side, namely by presenting and analyzing the novel (Hotel Europe) and revealing the origins of the novel in terms of cultural criticism. The results were then presented in a number of points, including classifying and sorting the sources, and finally translating the summary of the study into Arabic and English.</p> Sirwan Wahid Khzhr, Farhang Muzaffar Muhammad Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Language Landscape in Bakhtyari street in Erbil <p>This research (language landscape in Erbil city, Bakhtiari street as an example) is trying to clarify the language landscape in both theoretical and practical aspects. In the first part, the concept of language landscape is clarified terminologically. It has been tried to present the importance and the role of this topic generally, later on, the, relationship between the language landscape and the policy of language as well as the planning of the language is mentioned, at the same time the types of the language landscape in the aspect of goods and also in the aspect of the street language has been determined. For the practical part of this research, the street of Bakhtiarii is taken as an example which is a Main Street m while it is an important area of local shopping (Bazaar) in Erbil the capital city of the Kurdistan region. The Data’s and statistics of the language landscape of this street which is, monolingual, bilingual, and multilingual, have been accurately analyzed. The data of the dominant language in all the three types of language landscape has been precisely explained, and the method of the usage of formal and informal of any those mentioned above in terms of percentage have been presented by chart and ratio. In conclusion, a very detailed study has been devoted to the data and the results of the research have been presented.</p> Qais Kakl Tawfiq, Jihan Yusif Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Electoral campaigning, its concept, means, legal rulings <p>Electoral propaganda occupies the largest place in the election process for any institution, and it also reflects the cultural and value system of any candidate through the cultural, intellectual and psychological overtones it contains within it. Asking for positions if the candidate is qualified for it, taking into account the necessity to limit self-praise to the extent of the need, while free from lying or exaggeration, and not to challenge other competitors, and not to make promises that cannot be fulfilled, as well as free from spending huge money and not permissible to buy Voters' votes.</p> Abdullah Saeed Waise Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The role of the economic factor in the collapse of the Ottoman Empire <p>There are multiple and overlapping factors that lead to the collapse of states, especially a state with the weight of the Ottoman Empire, with its historical depth and geographical extension. Therefore, no matter how much we try to highlight the role of the economic factor, it has an overlap with several other factors. In this research, the factors of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire were divided into external and internal factors. In the paragraph of external factors came the nature of the countries that surrounded the Ottoman Empire, and the relationship with it was characterized by hostility, and continuous wars. Geographical explorations came with the support of the Church to work to negatively affect the trade routes linking the Ottoman Empire, and its geographical depth with gold mines in Africa, as well as the leakage of gold from the Ottoman Empire to Europe after it was replaced by silver coming from the New World after the discovery of the Americas. The role of foreign privileges came to cast a shadow over the internal interference in the affairs of the state, and finally came the role of external loans to tie the state in great shackles and to pave the way for foreign countries to control the economic system in the states of the state Ottoman. As for the internal factors, the role of the priority of militarism in the Ottoman Empire emerged in front of the backwardness of its economic system, which did not create support for the process of capitalist accumulation, and came to consolidate the character of artisanal production, and the occurrence of many financial and monetary crises, and the conflict between the Janissary band and the sultans of the state was present in the research, where it formed A bleeding wound that squandered the state's energies and resources and plunged it into internal conflicts. Finally, the army's failure to follow up on the technological and organizational developments that characterize modern armies.</p> Nasreen Sulaiman Hussein, Ameen Muhammed Saeed Alidressi Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Using Kagan's Structure in Knowledge Achievement and Self-esteem in the Kurdish Literature by Eighth-Grade Basic Students <p>The aim of this study is to find out the effect of using Kagan's structure in knowledge achievement and self-esteem in the Kurdish literature by the eighth-grade basic students.</p> <p> The researchers relied on the balanced design which includes two groups, the experimental group which they study through Kagan's structure, and the control group which they study normally. The research population includes eighth-grade students of basic schools at the centre of Erbil in 2021-2022. The researchers chose Bamok Basic School, they selected two groups randomly, the students were distributed into two groups; Group A was the control group which they were 22 students, and group B was the experimental group which they were 21 students. The researchers found out the balance between both groups from the variables (student age in months, education level of students' parents, results of Kurdish-language subject in the previous year, self-esteem scale).</p> <p> The research tools are self-esteem scale that the researchers relied on the scale (Halo, 2014) which included 46 items and divided into (3) alternatives; the second tool was knowledge achievement test, for this, they relied on the achievement test (Muhammad, 2015) the question types were (multiple choice, true or false) The number of questions was 28. The researchers verified both research tools by giving them to a number of experts and professionals, as well as the stability of both tools was achieved by retest in which the stability scale in self-esteem was (0.78) and the stability of the test was (0.80). After implementing the tools and extracting the results using T.test, the researchers came to the following conclusions:</p> <ol> <li>There is a significant difference at the level of (0.05) between the average score on self-esteem scale in pre- and post-test of the experimental group, which they study the subject by following Kagan’s structure.</li> <li>There is a significant difference at the level of (0.05) between the average score on self-esteem scale in pre- and post-test of the control group, which they study the subject normally.</li> <li>There is a significant difference at the level of (0.05) between the average difference score on self-esteem scale in post-test of the experimental group, which they study the Kurdish Literature by following Kagan's structure, and the average score on self-esteem of the control group they study the subject normally.</li> <li>There is a significant difference at the level of (0.05) between the average difference score of the experimental group, which they study the subject by following Kagan's structure, and the average score of the control group which they study the subject normally in knowledge achievement test.</li> </ol> <p> In the light of the results, the researchers presented some conclusions and recommendations and suggestions that generally emphasize on the use of new methods, including the Kagan's structure in teaching Kurdish Literature and building self-esteem in students, as well as the researchers gave some suggestions.</p> Srwa Alaaddin Omer, Chiman Hamza Drwish Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Irony in Kurdish Short short Stories <p>This article, entitled “Irony in Kurdish Short short Stories”, is basically a section of a doctoral dissertation, which has been selected for publication and consists of an introduction, a theme and several discussions, and finally the results, achieved by the researcher, have been presented.</p> <p>At the beginning of the article, the concept, role, importance, and function of irony as well as the types of irony have been discussed in a good theoretical manner. Then, some examples of the types of irony in Central-Kurmanji Kurdish short short stories have been given, by using the descriptive and analytical method.</p> <p>The importance of such an article is evident in the fact that this is the first time such a topic has been researched academically and previously irony only has been analyzed in the field of Kurdish poetry, while this genre is not only linked to poetry, but can also be seen in all genres.</p> Sangar Nadhim Hussein, Rezan Saleh Mawlood Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A statistical stylistic study of collected poems of (Lawandnaway kholamesh) by Tayeeb Jabbar <p>This study is an attempt to focus on the style and stylistics. It tries to explore what are they and how they are made and what is their importance in analyzing literary texts especially poetic texts. The collected poems of (Lawandnaway kholamesh) by Tayeeb Jabbar is analyzed using these stylistic devices. Also, the statistical stylistics is followed in this paper. The aim of the poet is to show the statistics, the range of types of verbs and styles of the collected poems. Studying any literary work of any poet through using statistical styles, demonstrates the types of poems in terms of quantity. Thus, this has a great significance in any literary work.</p> Kazhal Abdulqader Othman Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Choice as a stylistic phenomenon of meter and rhyme in the poetry of Ahmad Hardi <p>Because the new poets had a high level of culture and lived in the reality of their society, they were aware of all the changes and influences that took place in the world of literature in general and poetry in particular, so they pushed poets in general and Hardi in particular. Interest in the field of selection as a new process in the language of poetry, which gives the reader more pleasure, including the choice of language, sounds, words, phrases, sentences, as well as the choice of subject, content, images, etc. Hardi as a talented poet who managed to make the process intelligent selection in the subject of love and walked the paths of the Kurdish romantic school, Hardi as an experienced person who had goals in Presenting his works to readers, to this day his poems have survived in people's minds, so that most of his poems were translated into songs, because he had a high artistic spirit in choosing internal and external rhythms.</p> Lanja Kareem Fattah, Nawzad waqas Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Using the Poisson queueing model to improve the queue in Periodic Vehicles Inspection PVI company in Erbil city <p>In this research we have dealt with the number of customers (cars) arrive at Periodic vehicles Inspection (PVI) company in Erbil city according to poisson process, service time follows an exponential distribution and the number of cars that require repair following a binomial distribution with a certain probability.</p> <p>In this work the basic concepts of queueing theory are defined and the poisson queue model with multichannel homogeneous parallel servers in terms of steady state is derived.</p> <p>In order to achive the objectives of this research, the data about the failure car components as (Tires, Lights, Brakes and Engine) which are inspected by PVI company are obtained From Erbil traffic directorate, from the available data. the probabilities of the failure car components (Tires, Lights, Brakes and engine), the probability of the number of cars in the system, the probability of the number of cars that require repair and they will return to the system are defined, also the measures of performance of the queuing system are determined.</p> Bestun Merza Abdul-Kareem, Shvan Amir Hamanoory Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Semantic Field of Sport Collocations in English <p>A group of words that are semantically related and they refer to a specific subject is called semantic field. In this research, the field of sport collocation is studied. Additionally, the researcher chooses sport games and distinguishes it’s two general types namely individual and team games. Moreover, three common verbs are selected which are (play, go, and do). The study attempts to find out each sport game from the two types (individual, and team games) and their collocated verbs (the selected verbs). After, the data were analyzed, it has been declared that most of the sport games collocated with the verb (play). Then, the second verb which most of the sport games collocated with is the verb (go). Lastly, the least sport games collocated with verb (do). Finally, the nature of the sport games will determine their verb collocations.</p> Hezha Hamid Mustafa Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Minimalist Analysis of the Subjunctive Mood in the Clausal Structure of Central Kurdish <p>This paper aims to shed light on the morphosyntactic characteristics and distribution of the subjunctive mood in Central Kurdish (CK henceforth). To achieve this, the study adopts Chomsky’s (1995) Minimalist Program. In addition to the data from previous studies, further data are provided as the authors are native speakers of the language under study. The proposed hypotheses are that an inflectional projection namely Mood Phrase (henceforth MP) is the locus of mood markers (henceforth Mm) that is C-commanded by Negation Phrase (henceforth NegP) and in turn C-Commands Tense Phrase (henceforth TP). Further, the portmanteau prefix <em>de- </em>simultaneously functions as the indicative Mm, positive polarity marker (PPM), and imperfective aspect maker (IAM) in both past and present. The data demonstrate that in CK the subjunctive is not in conformance with Stowell’s (1993) classification to subjunctives and that CK utilizes mood as means to express <em>Modality</em> rather than modal verbs thus being in line with Palmer’s (2003, p.3) argument: “languages have either mood or modality, but not both”.</p> Azad Hasan Fatah, Rawand Anwar Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 "They don't imagine how we live over here": A Study of Black Migrant's Sense of Ambivalence and In-betweenness in Winsome Pinnock's Leave Taking <p>Since the 1950s, the migratory experience and cross-cultural fusion have become a subject of different social, political, and cultural discussions. The settlement of immigrants in Britain and the continuous arrival of asylum seekers from former colonies of the British Empire have sparked the investigation of identity crisis, ambivalence, assimilation, and diversity that have accordingly been reflected in literary works of Black British Diaspora.</p> <p>Winsome Pinnock, a black British dramatist, is one of several blacks and Asian women who have written plays that reflect the issues of first- and second-generation migrants in Britain. She explores how immigrants adjust to life in Britain in her play <em>Leave Taking</em>, at times rejecting, at other times embracing, the memory of their homeland. The study attempts to analyze the sense of in-betweenness and ambivalence experienced by the first and second-generation migrants in the light of the postcolonial theories of Homi K. Bhabha, Edward Said, and Frantz Fanon. It argues that as diasporic subjects, the characters are stranded in between two worlds- the homeland and host country. Moreover, it concludes that the characters under the impact of cultural interaction become alien and foreigners in host country as well in their homeland.</p> Jwan Adil Mohammed, Snoor Ismaeel Mahmud Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000