Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS <p>ISSN (Print):<strong>2218-0222</strong>, ISSN (Online): <strong>2412-396X</strong>, DOI:<strong><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.21271/zjhs">http://dx.doi.org/10.21271/zjhs</a></strong></p> en-US zanco.humanity@su.edu.krd (Management Staff) zanco.humanity@su.edu.krd (Support) Mon, 05 Sep 2022 10:01:46 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Geographical analysis of the spatial expansion of the city of Soran and its future prospects https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/177 <p> The phenomenon of the expansion of urban centers is a global phenomenon, arising from the impact of the high degrees of urbanization that afflicted almost all urban centers. The city of Soran is one of the urban centers in Erbil Governorate, which experienced a great urban growth within a short period of time. The research aims to track the spatial expansion of the city of Soran, through its morphological stages for the period between the years (1987-2013), and the justifications for this expansion, with an attempt to predict its trends in the future. In order to reach the goal of the research, the research was organized with an introduction and four axes, the first axis was devoted to the study of the geographical and positional characteristics of the city, while the second axis was devoted to the study of morphological stages, while the third axis dealt with the factors affecting the spatial expansion of the city, and the fourth axis was devoted to the study of horizons The future of the areal expansion to the target year (2035), and the study concluded with a set of conclusions and recommendations.</p> Hiwa Sadiq, Khalil Ismail Mohamed, Lozan Hassan Abdel Rahman Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/177 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Scope of Diligent Scholars (Mujtahid) A Fundamental Evaluative Study https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/142 <p>This research is a study that include those subjects in which Ijtihad (diligence) is practiced by jurisprudence fundamentalists. In a way it indicates the issue of Ijtihad, and declares the scope and the width of diligence and practicing Ijtihad. This is where there is no proofed contexts on the stable level of that text and its interpretation; rather than absolute texts. Moreover, this study investigates the scope of those subjects in which Ijtihad is practiced in those issues on which Shari’a has no contexts. This paper aims at determining verdict on those events and issues for which Shari’a scholars have no contexts and have left them for the diligent scholars (Mujtahids) to promote their competence to determine a legitimate verdict for Muslims that is beneficial and compatible with their situations and life times. Meanwhile, observing the public purposes of Islamic laws is essential in order not to disregard those contexts that their meanings are obvious. The scope of these issues is called amnesty area to which the fundamentalists have paid attention in a way that there is no discord among those issues on which Shari’a has no contexts, the infinity of texts, and the perfection of Shari’a. The almighty God has not ignored people, and He has judgment on every issues and troubles that Muslims come across. The legitimate texts are in a way that their rulings have included the judgment of all events directly, indicatively, or deductively. This consideration and vision of Shari’a perfection are not being avoided from measurement.</p> Othman Khudhur Hamadameen Segrdkani Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/142 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Exchanging presents Ayubian State, state and Islamic powers https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/223 <p> This research is a historical study about the (exchanging presents Ayubian State, state and Islamic powers), the important of this study is that it shows the friendly and political relationship of Ayubian State with the State, Islamic powers which includes Abbasian Khalifat, zangi family, Saljuqya Rom state, Muahidin state, Artaqyan and king of Hijaz. In this prespective, the exchanging of presents strengthened the relationship among Sultans, Ayubian king, kings of state, at the same time, exchanging these presents reduced the tension among them.</p> Mohammed Ali Fathullah, Faeza Mohammed Ezzat Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/223 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Rules of ‘Law Firm’ in the Light of Legislation of Kurdistan Region-Iraq (a comparative study) https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/179 <p>This study focuses on addressing the provisions of the law firms under the law of Kurdistan Region as these firms are of great significance and have characteristics distinguishing them from commercial companies. In addition to that, it is a new topic as it was organized by Kurdistan legislator in 2018 and the legislator has regarded them as civil companies.</p> <p>The study dealt with an analysis of the legal texts regulating law firms under Kurdistan Region lawyers’ law, compared to the provisions regulating these companies in the laws of other countries, namely Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco, in addition to the Iraqi Companies Law.</p> <p>Through this study, we concluded that there are gaps and shortcomings in the said provisions in Kurdistan Region lawyers’ law; we have referred to all these gaps and shortcomings. At the end of the study, we presented proposals and recommendations to address them.</p> Rozhan A. Dizayee Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/179 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Lexical repetition and its impact on achieving textual coherence in the dialogue of the prophets (Noah, Hood, Saleh) with their people https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/198 <p>This study deals with one of the means of lexical consistency, which is (repetition), which has a prominent role in achieving textual coherence in a dialogue of the prophets (Noah, Hood, Saleh) with their people. From this perspective, we studied repetition of its four types (complete, partial, synonymous, general words) as a way to highlight the textual coherence between a dialogue of one prophet with his people, or between two dialogues of the two prophets and sometimes between the dialogues of the three mentioned prophets, the study reached the conclusion that: The repetition of the four types of words mentioned has the ability to cohesion the parts of the dialogic text in the dialogue of the prophets (Noah, Hood, Saleh) with their people in the Holy Qur’an.</p> Shimal khudhur Abdulrahman Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/198 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic as a Strategic Shock on Education Process https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/215 <p>Covid-19 has influence on all aspects and fields around the world, especially learning institutions. This research seeks to demonstrate the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic as a strategic shock on education process, analytical research on a sample of teaching staff at Salahaddin University in Erbil.</p> <p>The research used questionnaire tool for obtaining the data, as it designed on the basis of research hypotheses, and distributed on the Lecturers of Salahaddin University-Erbil/ College of Administration and Economics, numbering (195) Lecturers, and returned (122) forms, which are (%70) of the total sample. The research tested the impact and differences between research variables in order to obtain answers related to the research problem by using statistical methods based on statistical programs for administrative research (SPSS).</p> <p>The research concluded that the Covid-19 pandemic had a shocking impact on the researched Organization as impacted on the other Organizations, it made them to review its strategies and policies. The research recommends developing strategies and policies to cope with surprised/ shocked changes.</p> <p> </p> Kosret M. Ebabekir Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/215 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The The social determinants of value of change, a field study of a sample of IDPs returning from the Kurdistan Region https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/264 <p>This research aims to monitor, describe and analyze some aspects and trends related to the social determinants of value of change among the displaced returning from Kurdistan Region to the city of Mosul, by answering the paragraphs of the research scale, which were prepared to reflect the research objectives of identifying the impact of displacement on the extent to which the new value system is accepted by returning displaced persons, by answering the paragraphs of the research scale, which were prepared to reflect the research objectives of identifying the impact of displacement on the extent to which the new value system is accepted by returning displaced persons, by answering the paragraphs of the research scale, which were prepared to reflect the research objectives of identifying the impact of displacement on the extent to which the new value system is accepted by returning displaced persons, to identify the indications of differences in value change according to the variables of research (sex, age, educational attainment, occupation, quality of housing, social situation, economic situation, number of children, period of displacement), as well as the basis for the descriptive analytical method of analysis of results, the size of the research sample was (300) units in the age group of (20+) years of returning displaced persons, while the research tool may be from a measure built by researchers for the purposes of this research consisting of 40 paragraphs in five dimensions (social dimension, ethical dimension, political dimension, cultural and economic dimension), with four alternatives, they are (fully applies to me – applies to me – does not apply to me - never applies to me) and the tool has been published electronically via Google forms. Value of returning displaced people rejecting the null hypothesis (H0) There is no relationship between social determinants and value change among displaced people returning to the city of Mosul from Erbil, the capital of Kurdistan Region /Iraq, and accepting the research hypothesis (H1) that shows the existence of the relationship.</p> Juan Ismail Bakr, Khaled Mahmoud Hami Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/264 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Britain's Position on Military and Logistical Arms Sales to Iraq during the First Year of the Iran-Iraq War 1980-1981 https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/227 <p> The position of the British government on the Iraqi-Iranian war 1980-1988, especially at its beginning, was of particular importance in drawing the lines of its various relations with the Iraqi government, which at the beginning of the war was in a race against time to provide weapons, ammunition and military equipment from the major industrial countries and their companies in this area. In view of Britain adopting a neutral stance towards the war, this is difficult from the position of the two sides. The British military industrial establishment and its companies were not able to obtain the possible economic benefit from Iraqi offers nor obtain huge deals to buy British weapons. This made Iraqi Ministry of Defense officials press in the negotiations for the signing of many deals with the British military industrial establishment, whether with the British Ministry of Defense or with British non-governmental companies. Despite that, there were many deals that took place between the Iraqi Ministry of Defense and the British government and British companies, as the economic and political factors and pressure groups from within Britain had a major role in concluding many of the deals. Here it appears clearly how serious the British government is in adopting a policy of neutrality towards the war, especially as the economic factors controlled its decision. In addition, the Iraqi Ministry of Defense is largely credited with breaking many obstacles in order to benefit from high-quality British military products compared to their French and European counterparts in general.</p> Mehvan Mohammed Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/227 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The structure of meaning of the poetic image among the arts of rhetoric Poem (A tour in Hawraman) as a model https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/255 <p>This study tries to show the role of the Rhetorical arts of Eloquence (Similes, Metaphor and Metonymy) in the meaning of poetic images in new Kurdish poetry. For this purpose, the poet Goran's poem "A tour in Hawraman" has been chosen for the practice of the arts, because this poem has many lines (verses) and most of the verses are composed of poetic images, And Goran is one of the first poets who started writing modern poetry in Kurdish language. That's why poetry (A tour in Hawraman) as a practical example, gives accurate results. In the study: each of the art of Eloquence and poetry images is defined, then the types of Eloquence arts and their branches are described. After that, this information was practically selected in the text of the poem and a detailed statistic with required analyses of the statistics was presented, and finally the results of the study were presented.</p> Himdad Husain Bakir, Muhammad Abdulkareem Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/255 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Method of Writing Music Ornaments in an Old Kurdish Music notes, in Iraqi Kurdistan https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/164 <p>This effort is a description and analysis of how musical elements were written in ancient Kurdish musical notes, especially in the Erbil art group and the music groups in Sulaymaniyah and Dohuk.The uncertainty in this topic motivated the conduct of this research. Because most of the available notes are devoid of these ornament symbols, and yet they are played through listening, they are full of ornament symbols... Therefore, this situation raised a number of questions for researchers; the search for answers to these questions became the basis of this research... in order to solve a topic Ornament between Kurdish music and songs, as it constitutes the objective of this study. For this purpose, data such as production notes sounds of songs, cassettes, and manuscripts of these orchestras were collected, and due to the lack of written sources, the sources were collected through personal interviews with members and musicians of these groups, to know how the ointment is reflected in Kurdish music.</p> Hazhar Ahmed Mustafa, Kawan Ahmad Elias Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/164 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Knowledge Economy in Achieving Strategic Success https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/253 <p>The main objective of this research is to build a framework for the philosophical concept of both variables by following up and analyzing the intellectual efforts in this area, in order to determine the levels of major and sub-changes according to the opinions of the heads of departments of colleges at Salaheddine University- Erbil.In this research we emphasized these attempts by emphasizing the role that came in the study, the researcher talks about (the role of indicators of knowledge economy in achieving strategic success: an analysis of the opinions of the heads of departments in a sample of the faculties of Salaheddine University -Erbil) and each in terms of his opinion, for example, on indicators of the knowledge economy, all with its impact on the variable of strategic success.The researcher refers to the analytical descriptive approach where the variables and dimensions of the study are described as well as the identification of the study community represented by the heads of all departments in the faculties of Salaheddine University -Erbil, and the study relies on the statistical program (SPSS) to analyze data and test hypotheses, as well as include research from the changers (knowledge economy and strategic success). This study shows a number of results analyzed as a result of statistical analysis, the results of the description of the study variables and their dimensions indicated that they are available in good proportions.The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the researched sections are interested in the index of scientific publications by encouraging their teachers to participate collectively in related conferences and seminars, and in the research has made a number of recommendations that will benefit the higher education sector and universities, to head the department financial allocations for scientific research purposes and to summarize material rewards to encourage the privileged.</p> Hoshmand Rafiq Ibrahim, Ahlam Ibrahim Wali Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/253 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Educational connotations in texts, children's theatre https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/270 <p>Children are invented beings that can search and learn more inventors in the theater, the theater is considered one of the greatest arts in the history of human civilization, and the theater was launched by children at first Until this time and throughout this history he has been able to provide a great service to children and humanity through the goals of the texts and teams of the powers, and this is because of the art of theater except acting The importance of a group of different races and subjects is as follows: (Texts, Music, Light, Event, Time, Place, Accessor, Makeup, Dicor, Dialogue, ..) And raising awareness, teaching, and improving the level of worldview and understanding children and humanity has been established, which is why the theatrical text and the importance of text with its development He was able to get into most of the dimensions and gaps of human life and take advantage of them and make them an important part,Among them: (Belief, education, creative work, education, religion, social subjects, politics, history, love, patriotism, ridicule, ..)Of course, all of these people have caused encouraging and guiding children and many types of investigations and speeches On the technique and content of theatre and theatre stories by critics . in this frame and for the purpose of looking more In the role and importance of Kurdish theatre text, we needed to look at children's theatre in Kurdistan region and the importance of text Theatre in children's education in the Kurdistan Region.</p> Karwan Ali Muhamad, Akram Faraedon Hamaamen Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/270 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Narrative time in novel Nataway Zerabakan (The Sewer Nation) according to Gérard Genette's theory https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/219 <p>Narrative time is one of the essential components of narration on which the structure of the narration is built. The narration is embodied in the novel’s literature within the time frame, as there is a close and basic relationship between them and this relationship is so solid that there is no narration that can be embodied outside the limits of the narration time. Therefore, the narration must be defined depending on the time of the narration. Gérard Genette is considered one of the theorists in the field of narrative literature, and his theory is based on the principle of structural research. To some extent, Gérard modifies the Structuralism theory and adds to it some other bases and rules and gives a clear and outstanding growth to this theory. Each of these levels is categorized into many different types. This study, according to Gérard Genette's theory, is an attempt to analyze the structure of the narrative time in the Nataway Zerabekan (<strong><em>The Nation of Sewers</em></strong>) by the novelist "<strong><em>Jabar Jamal Gharib</em></strong>" by identifying each of these levels and types.</p> Farhad Azeez hasan, Karzan Muhseen Qadir Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/219 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Quranists in the Modern Era: Their Opinions and Characteristics https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/169 <p><strong> </strong>This study dealt with the identification of one of the contemporary current, which is the Qur'anic movement in the modern era, and to clarify their most prominent opinions and ideas about Islamic creed, law and its methodology, especially with regard to the Prophetic Sunnah, in addition to mentioning the most important features of this movement. Despite the clarity of the position of the Sunnah in Islam and its legislation, there are individuals and groups of prejudiced people who are only interested in working to destroy the structure of Islam and diminish its pillars. They began a long time ago spreading suspicions about the Sunnah of the Prophet and claiming that the Holy Qur’an alone is the source of legislation, and there is no consideration of other sources with it, which the nation unanimously accepted. This perverted thought penetrated a sect whose try to put its poor assets to the religion, and also their knowledge of religion is very limited, yet this sect has given itself the right to introduce Islam and formulate its legislation according to their whims and opinions that have no legal basis for them. The heresy of denying the Sunnah is a new heresy, and in this era in which ignorance and ignorant people abound, and misfortune prevailed, this thought spread until it found space for itself through various media elements, until the inventers of this thought took for themselves a name that is “The Qur’anic” and they are not related to anything with the Qur’an.</p> Abdulwahab Ghafor Kareem, Luqman Samad Khudhur Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/169 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A descriptive Analysis of Kurdish Political Discourse With Reference to Referendum Discourse https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/231 <p>This research is entitled "A descriptive Analysis of Kurdish Political Discourse, with Reference to Referendum Discourse". It is an attempt to descriptively analyze the referendum discourse. This analysis is one of the levels of critical discourse analysis method for analyzing discourse. In this research, Political discourse is taken because political discourse is a type of discourse in which the conflict between Authority and Society is crystalline, and this is the aim of critical discourse analysis. In the current research, with focusing on the main questions of descriptive analysis which have been developed by Fairclough as the strategy of discourse descriptive analysis, referendum discourse is descriptively analyzed. The research defines discourse as a social activity and relies on Fairclough's views in order to determine its theoretical framework.</p> Srwa Faisal Azeez, Dyar Ali Kamal Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/231 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The duality of presence and absence in Tashari's by Enaam Kajaji https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/261 <p>The research deals with the issue of presence and absence in Tashari’s novel by the Iraqi writer Ana’am Kaja Ji, and after presenting a glimpse into the concept of presence and absence, linguistically and idiomatically, and providing a glimpse into the novelist and her novel. the research aims to trace the effect of the duality of presence and absence in the narrative construction of the novel at the level of personality, Dialogue, time, and lastly at the level of place in the linguistic fabric of the novel (Tashari).</p> <p> The research aims to choose models from the novel and its approach to analysis from specific visions, guided by the critical statements of presence and absence; It monitors the forms of the presence and absence of the character, the manifestations of the presence and absence of the elements of dialogue, time and place in the novel, studying them, clarifying the mechanisms of that manifestation, and pointing at the most prominent techniques adopted for its textual manifestations in the textual world of the novel and its solid narrative fabric, in order to present a panoramic image that embodies the features of presence and absence in the narrative text of the chosen blog.</p> Safa Jamal Dawood Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/261 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The use of social media and its impact on family values Facebook as an example https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/183 <p>This study aims to know the impact of social networking sites "Facebook" on family values and to reveal the positive and negative effects resulting from the use of these sites, including Facebook, and the most important controls for its uses, and in order to achieve these goals the study relied on the descriptive analytical approach, and the study found a set of results, the most important of which are: "Facebook" has become an important part of our daily life, and it affected us, some of which are positive and some are negative that affect individuals in particular and society in general, and this depends on the awareness of the user, and social networking sites affected the individual and the family, on the family side In particular, it destroyed many of the values, principles and traditions, and the study concluded with a set of recommendations, including: Parents must raise their children in a good way, represented in instilling religious scruples in the hearts of their children, and working to raise awareness about the importance of family interdependence, by working on useful and attractive programs on this subject, and raising awareness among those who are about to marry to get the benefit from the use of communication sites in the positive aspects that strengthen marital relations, through conferences and seminars.</p> Lana Tareq Raoof, Idris Qadir Hamadamin Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/183 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Cognitive Semantic Study of Oxymoron in Nali’s Collection of Poems https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/229 <p>This paper investigates oxymoron within cognitive semantic theory and attempts to find out how the meaning is conceptually constructed in oxymoron through combining two opposite lexical items, and what mental process activates this meaning construction. The study data is collected from <em>Nali’s Collection of Poems</em> who is one of the greatest Kurdish classic poets in terms of his language craftsmanship. The examples are analysed under Conceptual Blending Theory via Linguistic Introspection Analysis method. The study realises that the uses of oxymoron does imply the co-existing features of both constituting lexical items, but there is an accentuation to one of them depending on various factors like the whole verse or even the whole poem interpretation. The user purposefully profiles a particular construal in each oxymoron. The study concludes that in oxymoron meaning is constructed by a certain type of conceptual blending network that is double-scope network in which both input spaces have the same elements but different frames. Then compression happens to project the input spaces elements to the blended space as well as each input space frame makes central contribution to organize the frame of the blended space. An emergent structure rises in the blended spaces with a new frame, and that is the (new) meaning being constructed.</p> Nabaz Ismael Hamad Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/229 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Investigation of Constructive Alignment between Learning Outcomes and Assessment in English Department Modules https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/236 <p>Before the 21<sup>st</sup> century education reform, most university teachers considered assessment quality to be based on studied material comprehensiveness. The current requirements of society and market have given rise to a considerable change in dealing with and assessing information at university level from content memorisation to using the content information in daily life to do various tasks; for instance, <em>solving problems</em>, <em>applying studied information to new situations</em>, and <em>evaluating it</em>.</p> <p>In the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, such a shift in assessment quality is rarely perceived as a way of preparing university students for the present labour market, especially in terms of focusing on the course-syllabus learning outcomes (CSLO) and final written examinations (FWE). This could be due to the fact that the university examination questions of the region are not currently reviewed by the quality assurance of college or the scientific committee of department as part of education quality. Thus, at the absence of quality control, some instructors may design examination questions the way they prefer as university students complain about the differences in the difficulty level of various examination questions.</p> <p> Through content analysis, the present study investigates the quality of learning outcomes stated in the course syllabi, the knowledge depth in final examination questions, the alignment extent between FWE and CSLO in terms of knowledge depth. Additionally, it studies the instructors’ perceptions and practices of constructive alignment via using an interview, at English Department, College of Basic Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil for the academic year 2020-2021. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used for data collection and analysis in this study.</p> <p>Among the study findings are that university teachers are unaware of the constructive alignment between the learning outcomes of a module and its summative assessment questions; and they largely focus on lower thinking skills, rather than higher thinking skills of the revised Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy in their written examination questions. To improve the quality of constructive alignment between learning outcomes and assessment, several recommendations are finally put forward. </p> Tahsin Hussein Rassul Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/236 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Modernism in Antonia White’s Confessional Autobiographical Narratives: A study of Woman’s Life in Twentieth Century https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/265 <p> White’s modernism in her stories and diaries are due to her too personal and erotic language, which allows her to belong to the Avant-Garde period. She aimed at constructing the Modern female self and exploring its wounded psyche. White’s journey towards independence is decisive despite her suffering. In this study, White’s personal life has been transformed to a series of stories about herself. In her autobiographical novels and Diaries, she clarifies the patriarchal pressure on her that made her neurotic and not able to write for many years. Elizabeth Podniek’s study about White’s Quartet and Diaries is taken into consideration as a model of analysis. White’s creativity is shown through her memories of the past that enables her to present a highly modernist piece of writing.</p> Juan Abdullah Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/265 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The The Connotative Meaning of Emotional Words in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/288 <p> As connotative meaning is the associative meaning of words and it depends on personal usage and perception, it requires analysis and research in different areas such as literary, journal, cultural contexts. In this paper, the researcher chooses a context from a literary work that is a novel written by Cate Chopin which is entitled “The Awakening”. She selects the emotional words used in the text. Then, the connotative meaning of the selected emotional words are detected and classified according to their types in an organized table. Stating the positive, negative, and the neutral type. Later, the findings will announce the usage sequence (the most usage to the fewest usage) of the emotional words’ connotative meaning types. First, the positive connotative meanings are mostly used. Secondly, the negative connotative meanings and lastly the neutral connotative meanings are used.</p> Hezha Hamid Mustafa Copyright (c) 2022 Zanco Journal of Humanity Sciences https://zancojournal.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/288 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000