Zanco Journal of Human Sciences 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Management Staff Open Journal Systems <p>ISSN (Print):<strong>2218-0222</strong> </p> <p>ISSN (Online): <strong>2412-396X</strong></p> <p>DOI:<strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> Women in the Paintings of Johannes Vermeer and (Edward Hopper) A Comparative Research 2022-11-11T15:07:51+00:00 Mohammad Salh Rostam Zadeh <p>Women have always been one of the most important subjects of works of visual arts, especially painting. And this shows the importance and status of women in different societies. Jean Vermeer, a Dutch artist of the Baroque era, and Edward Hopper, an American artist of contemporary origin, are those painters whose women's faces are very evident as an important element in their works. This research compares the image of women in the works of these two artists in order to measure the position and identity of women in two different historical periods and between two different geographies. For this purpose, I have used the comparative method and library sources in this research. The achievements tell us that women's faces in the works of art of each period show the status of women and the social, economic, cultural and artistic status of that period.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mohammad Salh Rostam Zadeh Spatial Variation of Hypsometric Analysis in Nerwa Watershed 2023-07-16T14:27:34+00:00 Hozan Sadiq Mawlood <p>The hypsometric analysis (area-relief analysis) of drainage basins is an effective method for measuring the percentage of subsurface materials remaining in watersheds and highlighting the influence of slope leveling factors on them. This study aims to highlight the spatial variation of the values of the hypometric curve and hypsometry integral in the Nirwa basin and its sub-watersheds, and to detect the correlation and the influence degree between the values and the factors influencing them, The importance of the study lies in the fact that it discusses the results of applying mathematical equations to account the values of the hypsometric analysis that indicate the percentage of remaining land masses and the general topographical characteristics of the basin and their exposure to erosion factors, indicating the results in percentage and supported by a graph. The investigation concluded that the Wadi Nirwa watershed was in the late stage of the erosion cycle, and that more than two-thirds of the rock masses were removed in the watershed, as the values of its hypsometric integral reached 0.32%, and that the common category of hypsometric integral is 0.35-0.6%, as the values of 21 sub-watersheds ranged between 0.34-0.58%. The study also showed that the topographic characteristics are among the most influencing properties on the spatial variation of the hipsometric analysis values, and that the best model that can explain these variations is the model that consists of the variables of mean elevation, relative relief, slope average and dissection index.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hozan Sadiq Mawlood Reading the Text of Suwaray Ilkhanizadeh’s Poem (Shar) from the Perspective of the Ecocriticism Method 2023-07-23T09:22:12+00:00 Ibrahim Mohammed Ibrahim <p>The present research is titled “Reading the Text of Suwaray Ilkhanizadeh’s Poem (Shar) from the Perspective of the Ecocriticism Method.” Due to the urgent global environmental crisis and its severe threats to human existence and the natural environment, ecological criticism has become more popular as a critical contemporary approach in the latter half of the twentieth century. Ecological critics have endeavored to transform literature into a platform for combating the challenges posed to the ecosystem and contributing to alleviating environmental issues. This study examines Ilkhanizadeh’s poem (Shar) as an exemplar, which notably addresses ecological themes concerning the environment and human life. Its primary objective is to reveal Ilkhanizadeh’s ecological viewpoints concerning the urban environment, examining the dynamic relationship between human culture, society, and the natural surroundings. By delving into the poem’s ecological elements, this research raises awareness about the environmental crises resulting from prevalent urban systems and disciplinary practices.</p> <p>Employing the method of ecological criticism, this analysis entails utilizing its core concepts and insights to dissect the literary text in question. Through this approach, the study aims to shed light on the intricate interplay between the natural environment and human culture in an urban setting. Ultimately, this paper strives to contribute to a better understanding of ecology and its significance while advocating for environmental consciousness amid the challenges posed by current societal structures and human behaviors in urban environments.</p> <p>The research findings reveal the poet’s Ecopsychology state, which exhibits a strong sense of alienation, becomes noticeably complex in an urban setting. The poem accentuates elements that mirror the pastoral environment present in rural culture. Ilkhanizadeh identifies capitalism as a primary catalyst for the degradation of the natural environment and other facets of human existence. Furthermore, he critiques the city’s social environment, contending that establishing harmonious social relationships between individuals, society, and nature is challenging within urban confines.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ibrahim Mohammed Ibrahim The Role of Parents' Religiosity in Raising Children and Its relationship to Child Behavior - an Educational Study from an Islamic Perspective 2023-05-04T08:45:46+00:00 Ahmed Mahmood Saydok Nazanin Muhialdin Maaroof <p> Islam directs parents to show high morals and be treated with mercy. So that their children grow up on integrity and independence of personality; therefore, the researchers tried to highlight the importance of the role of parents' religiosity in raising children and its relationship to the child's behavior. The research aims to: highlight the impact of religiosity on the educational process, and the most important religious educational methods on which the Islamic law relie. The research is divided into an introduction, two sections, and sources. The first section included two requirements: the first is concerned with defining the words of the study, and the second is related to religiosity and its relationship to human behavior. The second section includes two requirements as well. The first includes religious methods that affect verbal behavior, while the second requirement includes methods that affect practical behavior</p> 2024-02-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ahmed Mahmood Saydok, Nazanin Muhialdin Maaroof Achieving the Right in the Deposit - A Comparative Jurisprudential Study 2023-05-29T11:41:59+00:00 Saad Eddin Masood Hussein Hussain Rasheed Ali <p>Our research entitled (Achieving the Right in the Deposit - A Comparative Jurisprudential Study) deals with an important issue in our daily life that is included in the transactions section, namely the deposit. As a Muslim may deposit his money with someone in order to preserve it, but when the term comes, he does not return it to him - as Allah commanded -, but he denies it and denies it. And the depositor does not have witnesses or documents to prove what he says to the judge in order to recover his money, and accordingly, if the depositor falls - one day - the money of the denier, is it permissible for him to win his right or not? , Here the scholars did not agree on a single opinion. And my scientific approach in solving this issue first is to refer to the main books of jurisprudence, especially the books of the four schools of thought, I mean the Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi’is, and Hanbalis, to verify what they say and what they differ in that issue and what their evidence is Secondly, we saw that the difference is in an important aspect related to the validity and weakness of the narrated hadith: ((Pay the trust to the one who entrusted you and do not betray the one who betrayed you)), and in the end we reached a conclusion, which is the validity of this hadith of the Prophet, due to its many ways, and the hadith is strengthened by it - as we indicated in weighting-,Then, after that, we saw that the scholars differed in interpreting and analyzing this hadith, and the one who narrated our thirst in its interpretation and analysis is that what is meant by (and do not betray the one who betrays you) is the one who takes his due from the ungrateful more and more than it should be. not whoever wins his right equal; Because it is inconceivable and illogical to attribute a person to treason while he is the one who won his right and took his money and his right from the unjust denier! , On the other hand, we have come to another conclusion, which is that whoever takes the value instead of the homosexual is permissible with a condition when the homosexual is lost, and in the end we see that he has the right to do all that to reach his right, provided that he does not commit immorality, or is attributed to theft, or sent to prison, and so on. Types of harm. </p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Saad Eddin Masood Hussein , Hussain Rasheed Ali Using the Backpropagation Algorithm to Distinguish Arabic Alphabet 2023-08-07T08:33:07+00:00 Samyia Khalid Hasan <p>In this research, a study of the Arabic alphabet used a multi-layered neural network, which is the backpropagation error. Using the algorithm through the Losing activation function to train the network. The hidden numbers of nodes are 10, the number of cycles is 500, and the error is 0.001, using the Matlab R2013a program. The aim of the study It is the use of the network algorithm to recognize the characters, by training the network to recognize the characters in two cases. The first case is inputting the image of the letter into the grid and the second case is identifying the letter that represents the letter drawn in the image. And it was reached that the algorithm used for the network of nervousness to recognize the Arabic alphabet and then show it correctly.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Samyia Khalid Hasan Focus on Form Approach in English Foreign Language Teaching 2023-06-02T15:25:10+00:00 Keivan Seyyedi Sirvan Aminzadeh Jamal Ali Omar <p>Numerous second language acquisition scholars assert that mere exposure to language is insufficient. They claim that activities that are only focused on message development are insufficient for developing a correct grasp of the language and urge a more form-centered approach to language instruction. ‘Focus on form’ (FonF) is a fundamental concept in task-based language teaching, originally introduced by Michael Long. It involves directing learners’ attention to the structures of language while they are actively engaged in tasks, as opposed to a structure-based approach called ‘focus on forms’ (FonFs), which focuses on explicit instruction of specific language forms. It maintains the significance of communicative language teaching principles, such as genuine communication and a student-centered approach. Understanding of this concept in second language acquisition (SLA) has experienced notable conversions. This article explores the evolution of Long’s original definition and reasons for reevaluation of teaching grammar. Then it presents a classification of different focus on form.</p> 2024-02-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Keivan Seyyedi, Sirvan Aminzadeh, Jamal Ali Omar The Role of American TV Shows on the Popularity of American English 2023-06-09T20:21:54+00:00 Baraat Ismael Faqe Abdulla Amina Sabir Mawlood Asmaa Saadi Kareem <p>TV shows have great impacts on every aspect of our lives. They have been used as an important source for language learning. The main problem of the study is that there is not much evidence about the impact of TV shows on the popularity of American English. The purpose of the study is to determine the explanation for American English’s appeal to Salahaddin University/ College of Education’s undergraduate English Department students. The research looks at shedding light on the following questions: Why do students of the English department at the College of Education favor American English? What connection exists between this appeal and American TV shows? For the study’s focus group, interviews, and questionnaire survey, a qualitative thematic analysis was used. The results show that most of the participants preferred American English, and most of them answered that they acquired their American English because of American TV shows.</p> <p> </p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Baraat Ismael Faqe Abdulla, Amina Sabir Mawlood, Asmaa Saadi Kareem A Study on Love and Family Relations in Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil's Aşkı Memnu Novel 2023-06-11T07:37:18+00:00 Naznaz Bahjat Tawfeq <p>Halid Ziya (Aşk-ı Memnu novel), one of the most important novelists of the Wealth of Arts period, has been accepted by many authors as the first Turkish novel in terms of history. In the analysis of the novel, it would be correct to focus on all the characters, not on a single character, and evaluate them one by one. Thus, it is extremely important to dwell on the dynamics between all the characters. Bihter, who married Mr. Adnan with the expectation of the realization of her teenage dreams, turns to a forbidden love affair with Behlül with the disappointment of not being able to achieve what she wants, but being betrayed in this relationship results in a decision to commit suicide. Although Bihter is at the forefront with her bitter "tragic" failure, each character deserves to be examined in terms of her active role in the process. Accordingly, in this study, the novel will be approached from a psychoanalytic point of view and will be tried to gain a comprehensive meaning about the psychodynamics that determine the characters' lives.</p> <p><em> A study On Love and Family Relations İn Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil's Aşkı Memnu Novel</em> will be the main subject of our study. Thus, this study aims to reveal the effect of the concept of love in Halid Ziya's Aşk-ı Memnu novel on people and examine the unhappy ending of these loves in terms of literary sociology. Another purpose is to show how forbidden love leads to the destruction of a family and the effects of making loved ones unhappy.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Naznaz Bahjat Tawfeq The Image of a Woman in Patrick Modiano the Unknown 2023-06-30T19:54:00+00:00 Faten Mohammed Abed <p>This study which is entitled the image of a woman in Patrick Modiano’s novel the unknown sheds lights on first the unnamed woman characters and deliberate negligence of their role, instead of giving them identities and names, the writer refers to them by using symbols. The second section is concerned with the negative picture of a woman who remains weak due to her psychological and sexual impact on her. She accepts everything to achieve what she desires. The third section is about the negative image of a woman whose horror and worriness lead her to committ a crime. Finally, the fourth sectionis about the positive image of a woman who overcomes all the obstacles and optimistically comes out of darkness, strengthened by knowledge due to the lessons she takes towards progress and work in a group to help others</p> <p> </p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Faten Mohammed Abed Construction Robust -Chart and Compare it with Hotelling’s T2-Chart 2023-07-02T09:37:23+00:00 Bekhal Samad Sedeeq Zainab Abdulla Muhammad Israa Muayad Ali Taha Hussein Ali <p>This paper proposes a new multivariate chart corresponding to a T2- chart robust to outliers using three methods, namely the Rousseuw and Leroy algorithm, Maronna and Zamar, and the family of "concentration algorithms" by Olive and Hawkins. Then the comparison between the proposed and classical method of the researcher Shewhart depending on the total variance (trace variance matrix) and the general variance (determinant of the variance matrix) to obtain the most efficient paintings against outliers through simulation and real data and using a program in MATLAB language designed for this purpose. The study concluded that the proposed charts dealt with the problem of the influence of outliers and were more efficient than the classical method.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Bekhal Samad Sedeeq, Zainab Abdulla Muhammad, Israa Muayad Ali, Taha Hussein Ali Establishing the Hardboiled Fiction as a Literary Landmark in Dashiell Hammett’s Red Harvest 2023-07-11T21:43:15+00:00 Khadeeja Saeed Ismail <p>In spite of the existence of a great number of hardboiled detective novels in American literature, Dashiell Hammett’s Red Harvest (1929) is regarded as a work beyond that of many others. The novel is Hammett’s first detective tale and the first crime fiction that found out a new subgenre in crime literature. Critics refer to it as a literary milestone, due to the writer’s realism, which was entirely unlike the way other writers wrote. This study argues that in addition to its realism the significance of the work is ascribed to Hammett’s urban setting, colorful characterization of the detective, foreboding narration, and the writer’s unusual notion of gender roles. The paper concludes that by the presentation of the true American world, penetrating through its affairs, and anticipating the consequences, Hammett detached British and American crime fiction, which was seen as one whole previously.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Khadeeja Saeed Ismail Linguistic Analysis of Unplanned Discourse in David Sedaris “Calypso” 2023-07-12T06:24:00+00:00 Binin Mustafa Saeed Rozgar Yousif Omar <p>This study aims to investigate the linguistic features that distinguish spontaneous and informal communication between individuals, often known as unplanned discourse. This study thoroughly examines a range of grammatical features and patterns seen in conversational discourse. The study analyzes the distinctive grammatical structures and phenomena that develop in unplanned discourse by studying a wide range of conversational data from different scenarios, dialogues, and casual conversations found in David Sedaris' Calypso. The study takes a qualitative approach, employing linguistic analysis techniques to discover recurrent patterns and syntactic variations contributing to spontaneous conversational discourse's overall order and coherence. The findings emphasize the informality, flexibility, unfinished utterances, and dynamic nature of grammatical usage in conversations, as seen by the inclusion of colloquial expressions, and digressions. The research adds to our understanding of how language is used in everyday interactions by throwing light on the various grammatical elements that distinguish conversational speech and their significance in supporting efficient communication. The findings of this study can be used to improve language teaching approaches and discourse analysis frameworks, as well as to contribute to the development of linguistic theories about unplanned discourse.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Binin Mustafa Saeed, Rozgar Yousif Omar Unleashing Creative Potential: Exploring theTransformative Impact of Canva on Students’ Engagement and Performance in Writing 2023-07-13T22:09:47+00:00 Baraat Ismael Faqe Abdulla <p>Writing in English is not an easy task for students learning as their second or third language. This task will become easier with the use of technology. This study aims to look into the effects of Canva, a well-known graphic design tool, on students’ writing participation and general performance. The study has been conducted on first year students of English Department- College of Education at Salahaddin University-Erbil. Three tools are used in the study’s mixed method approach for data collection: qualitative observation, qualitative questionnaire, and quantitative questionnaire. The findings demonstrate that Canva has a significant impact on students’ motivation for writing in the English language because they enjoy using the graphic design tool while they write. The research findings will offer insightful information about the advantages of incorporating Canva in writing instruction, highlighting its role in increasing student engagement and motivation</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Baraat Ismael Faqe Abdulla Application of Principal Component Analysis to Vehicle Sales: Case Study at IBM Company 2023-07-12T08:32:02+00:00 Feink Mohammed Omer <p>Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a fundamental statistical technique used fordimensionality reduction and data transformation. It is providing an overview of PCA's principles, methodology, and applications. PCA aims to capture the most important information in high-dimensional data by transforming it into a new coordinate system defined by its principal components. These components are linear combinations of the original variables, ordered by the amount of variance they explain. The data has been taken from original data from (IBM) company on car sales. According to a real-world example, sales of cars are based on (car type, sales in thousands, 4-year resale value, price in thousands, engine size, horsepower, wheelbase, width and length, curb weight, fuel capacity, fuel economy, and log-transformed sale), these data used in SPSS program for this purpose.The result indicates that the first and second components (Wheelbase, Engine size, Price in thousands, Horsepower, and Sales in thousands) factors together represent the total variances % (75.8(45%) in the model, which uses appropriate sampling and contains two components in total with up to 12 variables added.It is recommended that drivers should have automobiles that are more comfortable for divers and with (high-quality horsepower Wheelbase, Engine size, Price in thousands, Horsepower, and Sales in thousands) of cars.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Feink Mohammed Omer The Transformation of Enamored Women in Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Khani’s Mam and Zin 2023-07-21T12:11:37+00:00 Sherzad Shafie Babo Barzani* <p>The transformation of Female lovers to higher levels of consciousness happens step by step in the tragedies of Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Khani’s Mam and Zin. This research sheds light on this transformation that comes to its peak in the personality of the main female lovers of these two works. In Fritz Kunkel’s psychology, there are three levels of consciousness which are divided into multi-dimensions of two-dimensional person, three-dimensional person, and four-dimensional person. Furthermore, the paper will look into the possibilities of female characters evolving into more advanced forms of existence. The psychological characters of the lovers in the selected tragedies were undoubtedly shaped by society and its culture. The study has employed Karl Jung’s psychoanalysis and mystical theodicy as methodologies. </p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sherzad Shafie Babo Barzani* Estimating Parameters and Predicting the Risk of MiscarriageInfertility, and Psychological Disorders Among Chemical Attack Survivors of Kurdistan by Using Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis 2023-07-31T21:16:34+00:00 Nazeera Sedeek Kareem Al Barznji <p>Since the Ba'ath regime took over Iraq, they oppressed the Kurdish nation in every way. In 1987, on the pretext of the Iran-Iraq war, they bombed the two cities (Sardasht and Piran shar) in East Kurdistan After that year, 40 villages and cities in South Kurdistan were bombed include of them was Halabja on 3/16/1988. In addition to 5,000 martyrs and 10,000 wounded, most of the people of Halabja suffer from various diseases, to determine the level of risks of chemical gas to survivors suffering from miscarriage, infertility and mental disorders, this study was recorded by interviewing (500) infected people recorded in the Ministry of Martyrs and Anfal in Kurdistan.The results found that the most risk on [Abortion disease, Psychological disease (female), Infertility disease(male), and transmission of disease], and the level (0.70-0.90) is the most affected by the chemical gases that cause Miscarriage, infertility, and Psychological diseases In this paper IBM SPSS software used for Analyzing the data. </p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nazeera Sedeek Kareem Al Barznji Building a Statistical Model to Forecast Traffic Accidents for Death and Injuries by Using Bivariate Time Series Analysis 2023-07-26T18:54:16+00:00 Nozad Hussein Mahmood Dler Hussen Kadir Obaid Mahmud Mohsin Alzawbaee <p>In our study, multivariate time series were used that included two variables, namely, the death and injury rates from car accidents in Erbil City Iraq. The data for the two series were collected monthly from January 2015 to December 2020, so there are 72 units in each series. The most important finding is that the time series is stationary, and the appropriate model to represent the phenomenon studied is VARMA (1,0). A statistical model was adopted to forecast accidents resulting in death and injuries for 2024, and it was found to be appropriate. Furthermore, we use R-programing and STATA version 17 to analyze our data. As a result, the study suggested that the Iraqi Kurdistan Traffic Department could use the model developed to forecast the phenomenon's future trends.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nozad Hussein Mahmood , Dler Hussen Kadir , Obaid Mahmud Mohsin Alzawbaee The Value of Using French Songs in a Class of French as a Foreign Language: Second Year Class at the French Department in Erbil 2023-05-31T14:02:13+00:00 Ali Saleh Malo <p>Our present research will aim to consider the value and importance of songs in learning French as a foreign language among the Kurdish students of the second year in the French department in Erbil. According to our first observations, we will try to see if French song can improve the language learning among Kurdish students, can aid them to memorize new words? Does it have the potential to enrich the French language lessons and motivate learners? To answer these questions, we will endeavour to highlight the positive influence of songs on the process of learning the foreign languages that are put in place by researchers. To carry out our research, we relied on the qualitative methodology, and we chose the questions because it helped us to obtain relevant information and achieve the desired results</p> <p> </p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ali Saleh Malo Verb Conjugation Suffixes in Esad Naib’s “Zamanin Eli” Poetry Book 2023-06-28T11:02:23+00:00 Kosret Bapir Maghdid Beg Zade Karwan Rauf Taha Mirani Selan Neamat Hussein <p>Esat Naip, who is considered as one of the famous poets in Iraqi-Turkmen literature, initially published his poems in <em>Kirkuk, Afak, Necme, Beşir and İleri</em> newspapers. In the following periods, he published his poems in the magazine <em>Kardeşlik </em>and some of them in the magazines <em>Yeşil Ada</em> and <em>Fuzuli,</em> which were published in Turkey. (<em>Kerkük Nükteleri, Yapraklar, Armağan, Zamanın Eli</em>) are the poet's written verse and prose works. He also brought together many unpublished poems under the name of (<em>Keşkül</em>). Our study is based on Esad Naib's (<em>Zamanın Eli</em>) poetry book and the verb conjugation suffixes used in selected poems are evaluated. In Turkish: We have two types of moods: 1. İndicative (news) moods, 2. Subjunctive moods. In addition, shows the similarity in Iraqi Turkmen and Turkey Turkish in form and structure. Thus, it is aimed to determine the verb conjugation affixes in the selected (<em>Okuyuculara, Zamanın Eli, En Azizime, Çözülmeyen Bağ, Hancı, Hancı ile Baş Başa, Şölen Salonu</em>) poems of the poet poetry book.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Kosret Bapir Maghdid Beg Zade, Karwan Rauf Taha Mirani , Selan Neamat Hussein