Assessment of Annual Effective dose and radiological hazards associated with radioactivity on workers in Physics Laboratory


  • Rozhan Dilshad Haider Department of Physics, College of Science Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Dilshad Salih Ismael Department of Physics, College of Science Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Radioactive sources, X-ray devices, excess lifetime cancer risk, annual effective dose equivalent


   Determining the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) and Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (AEDE) due to ionizing radiation that affects the faculty and students working in the Nuclear and solid-state Undergraduate Laboratories, College of Science, Salahaddin University -Erbil was the objective of this study. In this study, it was used two separate portable nuclear radiation detectors; the (INSPECTXUSB) and (DKG-21) Geiger counter nuclear radiation detectors. Equivalent Dose Rate (DER) and Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) values were measured in (μSv/h) for radioactive sources (Am241, Cs137, Co60, Na22 and Sr90) and X-rays were radiated in three different devices. The results of (ELCR) were compared with the values listed in the UNSCEAR 2008 and ICRP world safety recommendations. The results indicated that the students experienced no substantial health risks, and the exposure doses are within the permissible limit except Sr90 (2.665±0.044) and the X-ray emitted from Phywe Systeme (4.758±0.014). Moreover, the hot spots of Cs137, Sr90 and X-ray and should be closely monitored. Since the staff personnel spend more time in the lab than students, they are more likely to be exposed to radiation and contamination Cs137 (3.297±0.030), Sr90 (15.988±0.261) and X-ray (28.551±0.045).



ABOJASSIM, A. A., HASSAN, B. A., AL-GAZALY, H. H. & SALEH, N. 2016. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Some Types of Pathogenic Bacteria. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sciences, 7, 1349-1353.

BARAYA, J., SANI, M. & ALHASSAN, M. 2019. Assessment of indoor and outdoor background radiation levels at school of technology, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano State-Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 23, 569-574.

BUSHBERG, J. T., KROGER, L. A., HARTMAN, M. B., LEIDHOLDT JR, E. M., MILLER, K. L., DERLET, R. & WRAA, C. 2007. Nuclear/radiological terrorism: emergency department management of radiation casualties. The Journal of emergency medicine, 32, 71-85.

EMELUE, H., JIBIRI, N. & EKE, B. 2014. Excess lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radiation in and around Warri refining and petrochemical company in Niger Delta, Nigeria. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 4, 2590.

ETIM, I., WILLIAM, E. & EKWE, S. 2014. Alpha-Particle Spectroscopy and Ranges in Air. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, 2, 2347-3878.

ICRP 2007. The Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Annals of the ICRP Publication 103, Elsevier.

ISMAIL, A. H. 2016. Estimation Annual Exposure of Radiation Dose inside Hospitals and Health Centres of Kurdistan Region and its Impact on Health of Workers and Patients. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 28.

Karam, P.A. (2021). Radiation Detection Technology. In: Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications. Springer, Cham, pp.32-33.

OZDEMIR, M., HUSSEIN, Z. A. & CAKEZ, C. 2017. Seasonal Variation of Exposure Radiation Dose in Ishik University Using Survey Radiation Dosimeter. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 28, 8-12.

PERALTA, L. 2004. Measuring the activity of a radioactive source in the classroom. European journal of physics, 25, 211.

UGBEDE, F. O. & ECHEWEOZO, E. O. 2017. Estimation of annual effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from background ionizing radiation levels within and around quarry site in Okpoto-Ezillo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, Journal of Environment and Earth Science ,7.

UNSCEAR 2008. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. report on the Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes, United Nations, New York .

WAQAR, M., AFRIDI, T. A., SOOMRO, Q., ABBASI, A. S. & SHAHBAN, M. 2022. Measurement of Ambient Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Operating Consoles of Radiation Modalities in Cancer Hospital NORIN Nawabshah, Pakistan. Journal of Engineering Research and Sciences 6, 07-12.



How to Cite

Rozhan Dilshad Haider, & Dilshad Salih Ismael. (2023). Assessment of Annual Effective dose and radiological hazards associated with radioactivity on workers in Physics Laboratory. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 35(6), 1–8.



Mathematics, Physics and Geological Sciences