Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences <p>Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences was originally launched in 1988 by Salahaddin University. Now it's one of the famous journals locally. </p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Mustafa S. Al-Attar) (Technical support) Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Management Factors Affecting Nitrogen Content, Cell Wall Thickness and the Fiber Diameter of the Kenaf Fibers (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) <p>Two field tests have done in 2013 and 2014 on two kenaf varieties: Fuhong-952 and 4383 at University Putra Malaysia which was to investigate the effect of preharvest factors of nitrogen content in the cell wall of the fibers. Different types and doses of fertilizers were used as preharvest factors, which was potassium as muriate of potash at the rate of (0.0, 100 and 150 kg/ha), was added to the plants in two different growth stages, halve dose at planting day and others' after planting by three weeks. At the second time of application boron and zinc added at (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 0.0, 5.0 kg/ha, of borax and zinc chloride), respectively. Besides that, during the second field test just FH-952 as plant material was selected, other levels of zinc were added which was to display its impact of quality characteristics. The best result of nitrogen content (4.82%) was achieved for FH-952 when potassium was added at the high level, nevertheless 4383 was when potassium, boron and zinc were applied at the rate of (150, 1.0 and 5.0) kg/ha, respectively by (3.33%). Changing of nitrogen content caused to increase cell wall thickness, so the biggest result of the cell wall thickness was recorded again when potassium was added alone at a high level (150) kg/ha, which was by (7.73 μm) of FH-952 variety. K, Z and combined treatments; K×Z, K×B, and K×B×Z were significantly affected fiber diameter. During the second experiment zinc performances caused to achieve tough fibers which was possible for using as biocomposite materials</p> <p> </p> Rabar F. Salih, Khalina B. Abdan Copyright (c) 2022 Rabar F. Salih, Khalina B. Abdan Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A comparison between the effects of degraded and non-degraded organic matters on the suppression of chickpea fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris <p> A field study was conducted in Girdarasha research station, belongs to the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences (CAES), Salahaddin University, Erbil Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The objective was to investigate the effects of adding plant materials on the suppression of chickpea fusarium wilt disease caused by <em>Fusarium</em> <em>oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>ciceris</em>. Two plant residues, fresh (non-degraded) and composted (degraded) from three plant sources of leaves were added to the soil. Eucalyptus (<em>Eucalyptus</em> <em>camaldulensis</em>), Dodonea (<em>Dodonaea</em> <em>viscosa</em>), and Neem (<em>Azadirachta</em> <em>indica</em>) were used as plant sources. Results showed the domination of composted matters over non-composted plant materials in their effects on the measured parameters (disease incidence, disease severity, plant height, and seed yield). Composted Eucalyptus leaves surpassed other composted residues in decreasing the disease severity. Nevertheless, the composted Dodonea leaves had the greatest effect in increasing both yield and plant height. The growth rate was an exception because it was not affected by the addition of these plant matters. </p> Kamalaldeen M. Fatah, Majid H. Mustafa, Qasim A. Marzani Copyright (c) 2022 Kamalaldeen M. Fatah, Majid H. Mustafa, Qasim A. Marzani Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Chemical Fertilizer and Humic Acid on the Growth and Development of Paulownia tomentosa Seedlings. <p>Silvicultural treatments were applied in forest nursery to produce high quality and quantity seedlings. Fertilizer application is one of the most important treatments that were used to improve seedling morphological and physiological traits. The study investigated the influence of NPK fertilizer levels viz. 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 g pot<sup>-1</sup>, Humic acid levels viz. 0, 5, 10 and 15 g pot<sup>-1 </sup>and their interactions on growth and physiological properties of <em>Paulownia tomentosa.</em> Morphological growth parameters (the increment in the stem height, stem diameter and leaf number) and physiological parameters (leaf area, chlorophyll content and protein percent, and N, P, K content) were measured. The results indicate that the highest values of stem height and stem diameter increment were (52.70 cm and 10.69mm) at (1.5g) of NPK fertilizers. The maximum values of both traits were (51.40 cm and 10.33mm) recorded at (15g) of Humic acid. The highest mean value of nitrogen (2.90 and 2.53 %) reported from application of (1.5 g NPK and15g Humic acid), respectively. Among physiological parameters chlorophyll content recorded the highest value which were (56.97 and 56.04) at (1.5g NPK and 10g Humic acid,) respectively. From interaction between (1g NPK x 15g Humic acid) recorded the highest value of potassium which was (3.74%). The results will help will improve nursery practices to produce healthy and a high quality of <em>P. tomentosa</em> seedlings to meet the plantation programs.</p> Nigar Abdulrahman Sabir, Sherzad Omar Hamad Copyright (c) 2022 Nigar Abdulrahman Sabir, Sherzad Omar Hamad Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Limiting Irrigation Water Quality Indices of several rivers, wells and springs in Dohuk governorate <p>The investigation was done during 2018, that included the chemical analysis of 30 water samples which were taken from 10 wells,10 springs and 10 rivers in Dohuk. The results showed that 10 , 26.67 , 53.33 and 10% of tested water samples had excellent ,good, average and poor quality relying on quality index for irrigation water and Brazilian classification(2012) that located between zero to 13.34.On the other hand depending on Meireles <em>et al.</em>, classification (40 ,40 ,16.67 and 3.33) percentage of the studied water resources recorded medium , high ,severe and low restriction of applying for irrigation uses respectively with the quality index for irrigation of ( 37.38 to 42.02). The results showed the difference between the results of two applied systems for irrigation water category.</p> Akram Othman Esmail, Vahil Ismael Barwari, Omar Anwar Rekani Copyright (c) 2022 Akram Othman Esmail, Vahil Ismael Barwari, Omar Anwar Rekani Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Heavy metals compositions in springs and streams from Shaqlawa district, Erbil Province, Kurdistan region of Iraq. <p>This study was conducted to determine some heavy metals concentration (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Al, Zn, Cu and Pb) in 18 springs and streams from Shaqlawa district, Erbil governorate from September-2019 till August-2020. The results indicated that higher value of Fe was 660.0 µg/L and 450.0 µg/L recorded in October-2019 in site 17 (Azarian spring) and site 8 (along stream). Mn concentration value varied between 1.0-39.0 µg/L in some springs and streams sites. While, Ni and Cr values was ranged between 7.0--47.0 µg/L and 1.8-24.3 µg/L respectively. The Cd, Al and Zn concentrations were ranged between 2.0-6.50 µg/L, 1070-3380 µg/L and 10-320 µg/L respectively. Finally, Cu and Pb concentration was never exceeded 67.8 µg/L and 50.0 µg/L in site 2 (Piawan spring) and site 16 (Benwan spring) during July-2020 respectively. According to world Health Organization (WHO) all heavy metals in studied sites were within allowable level. Except concentrations of Al in all sites, Ni in many sites and Fe only in site 17(Azarian spring) was above the permissible level for drinking purposes. Relying on the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) the results was varied between 65.66 to 87.75 which mean that all the studied sites lower than 100 which considered as critical number for drinking water purposes. This means all springs and streams sites in this investigation were not polluted by the heavy metals. But according to single factor pollution index of Fe,Mn, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb was less &lt;1 means uncontaminated while, pollution index for Al was &gt; 3 and Ni more than one in most sites which polluted.</p> Janan Jabbar Toma, Farhad Hassan Aziz Copyright (c) 2022 Janan Jabbar Toma, Farhad Hassan Aziz Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Interactive Effect of Irrigation Skipping and Salicylic Acid on Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) <p> This experiment was conducted on NS Leviathan hybrids during the summer season under the semiarid region. It was designed as a split plot factorial arrangement using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the skipping irrigating effect I<sub>1</sub>, I<sub>2</sub>, and I<sub>3</sub> with salicylic acid applied S<sub>1</sub> and non-applied S<sub>0</sub> on the yield at three growth stages (vegetative, flowering, and achene-forming stages), and compared to the effects of full irrigation I<sub>4</sub>. Complete irrigation with salicylic acid applied resulted in the best production, while the lowest yield was recorded by skipping irrigation without salicylic acid application at the flowering stage. The treatments without salicylic acid application were found to be the most effective in conditions of low watering. Moreover, there was a failure in flowering stage and increasing yield when watering was missed, compared to the vegetative and achene stages. Consequently, it is concluded that avoiding limiting irrigation during the flowering stages can lead to have a better seed production.</p> Shorsh Hussein Bapir, Saber Wasman Hamad Copyright (c) 2022 Shorsh Hussein Bapir, Saber Wasman Hamad Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the trace element concentration in some livestock and poultry bone samples using X-ray fluorescence <p>Element concentration (ppm) in some samples of livestock and poultry animals' bones haven evaluated using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. The study included evaluation of the concentration of more than 20 elements in bone samples It has focused on the impacts of freezing process on the concentration of elements The results demonstrated that the element concentrations were reduced by freezing samples. The higher effects were on the concentration of (Cr, Al, Zn, Sr, Mg, K, Ca, Cu, Fe, S, and P) for the bones of cow and sheep, and the most effects were in cow's bone samples. Maximum and minimum ratio value element concentration (cow and sheep livestock samples/ cow and sheep freezing samples) were 54.5 ± 12.2 ppm (element of Cr) and 0 ppm (element of Ba, Mn, Ti, Sn, and Rb), respectively. The results of element concentration in chicken bone samples indicated that the high element concentration was in bone samples of livestock chicken (organic) compared with the poultry chicken (fresh and freezing).</p> <p>XRF, Bone, Livestock, Poultry, Trace elements, freezing meat,</p> Dler Aladdin, Asaad H. Ismail, Akram H. Taha, Zakariya A. Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Dler Aladdin, Asaad H. Ismail, Akram H. Taha, Zakariya A. Hussein Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Design a Reactive Power Compensator in Smart Home under Variation of Supply Voltage of Low-Level Distributed Power System <p>Reactive power compensation is an essential goal for building smart homes when they are supplied from inconsistent voltage sources such as local diesel generators. These houses are subscribing to these generators with limited amperes. While the active power cannot be reduced as home appliances are necessary for daily life, therefore, the focus is on reactive power to be managed. The challenge of dealing with this problem is worsened when the supply voltage is unstable and varies with the time as local diesel generators behave. In this paper, a compensation technique is presented using a modified dynamic capacitor method in which the value of the capacitor is varied and controlled through switching operations. A Matlab/Simulink showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique in compensating the reactive power as well as reducing amperes for different cases of real situations.</p> Fadhil T. Aula Copyright (c) 2022 Fadhil T. Aula Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bifurcation analysis for Shil'nikov Chaos Electro-dissolution of Copper. <p>This paper is devoted to study the local bifurcations and stability of three dimensional systems that representing a Shil'nikov chaos during copper electro-dissolution. The local stability analysis of equilibrium points has been studied. It is shown that transcritical bifurcation can appears in the system. Also, the existence of Hopf bifurcation of the system around the equilibrium points is studied when the parameter passes through the critical value. Normal form theory is used to study bifurcating periodic solutions.</p> Jihan Mustafa Mirkhan, Azad Ibrahim Amen Copyright (c) 2022 Jihan Mustafa Mirkhan, Azad Ibrahim Amen Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of the Mechanical Properties for Polymer Reinforced by Nanoparticles with Considering Viscoelasticity of the Matrix <p>Nanomaterials have shown more interests to the field of nanotechnologies. Polymeric nanocomposites combine the lightweight and low cost of manufacturing for polymers with nanoparticles of higher performance properties.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to find the mechanical properties of nanocomposite of polymer reinforced by nanoparticles with considering matrix viscoelasticity. The viscoelasticity of the polymer was obtained from the experimental tests for the thermoplastic polymer of Poly ether ether Ketone (PEEK) at a range of temperatures and frequencies. The viscoelasticity of the polymer was confirmed by comparing the experimental results with a finite element model. The approved viscoelasticity was used for the matrix of the nanocomposite numerically.</p> <p>To obtain the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite, a micromechanical model was developed. It was used to find their homogeneous mechanical properties with range temperatures. It was found that the viscoelasticity have effect on mechanical properties for the nanocomposite, and the modulus of the nanocomposite increases with nanoparticle content. However, it decreases as the temperature increases.</p> <p>Parameswaranpillai J., Kurian N. and Yu Y.2015, <em>Nanocomposite materials: synthesis, properties and applications, </em>CRC press, Taylor and Francis group.</p> <p>Yas M, Korani H. and Jouneghani F. 2020. Studying the mechanical and thermal properties of polymer</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>REFERENCE</strong></p> <p>nanocomposites reinforced with montmorillonite nanoparticles using micromechanics method, <em>Journal of solid mechanics</em>, 12(1), 90-101, 2020.</p> <p>Le B. 2020. A review on Nanocomposites Part 1: Mechanical Properties, <em>Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering</em>, DOI:<a href="">10.1115/1.4047047</a>.</p> <p>Ou Y., Yang F., Yu Z. 1998. 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The constitutive models suitable for adhesives in some finite element codes and suggested methods of generating the Appropriate Materials Data. NPL Report CMMT(B)130, UK.</p> <p>Wu Q. 2009. <em>Creep behaviour o borate-treated stranboard: effect of zinc borate retention, wood species and load</em>. PhD thesis, Louisiana state university, USA. </p> <p>Roylance D. 2001. Engineering viscoelasticity, Available online on website (<a href=""></a>). 2001. Accessed on (5/9/2021).</p> <p>Zmindak M. et. al. 2011, Finite element analysis of viscoelastic composite solids, <em>The 4th International conference, Modelling of mechanical and mechatronic systems</em>, technical university of Kosice.</p> <p>Witczak M. 2004. <em>Development of a master curve database for lime modified asphaltic mixtures</em>. PhD thesis, Arizona state university.</p> <p>Imaoka S. 2008. <em>Analyzing viscoelastic materials</em>, Ansys Inc.</p> <ol start="2004"> <li>Gitman I. et. al. 2004. The concept of representative volume for elastic, hardening and softening materials, I<em>nternational summer school conference in Advance problems in mechanics</em>, Russia.</li> </ol> Diyar Omar Kaka Copyright (c) 2022 Diyar Omar Kaka Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 STUDY OF ULTRAVIOLET SOLAR RADIATION IN DUHOK CITY UNDER CLEAR SKY CONDITIONS <p>This work focused on the UV solar radiation measurements under clear sky conditions for typical days in months (April to July) when the UV radiation is expected to have the highest values in Duhok city. </p> <p>Two types of UV, (UVA and UVB) were measured from April to July under clear sky conditions. The maximum UVA (wavelength 315-400 nm) irradiance (38 and 37) W/m<sup>2</sup> was measured at noon in June and July, respectively. The minimum UVA of 30 W/m<sup>2</sup> was recorded at April noon. In July, the hourly UVA ranged between 2.6 W/m<sup>2</sup> at 6:00 pm to 37 W/m<sup>2</sup> at 12:00 pm; maximum UVB (wavelength 280-315 nm) irradiance of 1.9 W/m<sup>2</sup> was measured in July noon’s, and a minimum of 1.4 W/m<sup>2</sup> at April noon.</p> <p>The effect of the atmosphere (solar zenith angle) on the UVB clearness index was investigated and a functional relationship between them was developed. Finally, the time required for UVB minimum erythemal dose was estimated.</p> Omar Salih Omar, Thabit Elias Basheer Copyright (c) 2022 Omar Salih Omar, Thabit Elias Basheer Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation of Mobile Phones on Sperms Shape and Number in Male Albino Mice <p>The majority of adult populations throughout the world currently use and are exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones, and male infertility accounts for around half of all cases worldwide. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impacts of radiation from mobile phones on morphology and the number of sperm in male albino mice in both talking and non-talking modes. In this investigation, twenty-four mice were used and separated into three groups each of eight mice. The first group was the control group; exposed to a switched-off mobile phone for two hours per day. While, the second group was exposed to a mobile phone with non-talking mode for 2 hours per day, and the third group to a mobile phone in talking mode for 20 minutes per day. All mice were tested for sperm shape abnormalities and sperm count tests after six weeks of treatment. Results of the current work showed that exposed group G3 (mobile phone in talking mode) have significant changes in sperms shape and decline in sperm count in comparison with control group (G1). While the limited handling of mobile phone without talking (for about two hours per a day, G2 group) has no bad effects on sperms morphology and concentration in compare with the control group (G1).</p> Natheer Jameel Yaseen Copyright (c) 2022 Natheer Jameel Yaseen Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of persistent antigenic challenges and splenectomy on immune cells in β-Thalassemic patients. <p>Infection is common in thalassemia patients and is one of the leading causes of death. It's still unclear why these individuals are so sensitive to infection. There is strong evidence that a deficiency in the functioning of phagocytic cells plays a key role in the weakened resistance to pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of phagocytic cells by comparing the serum levels of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and Neopterin in thalassemia patients to healthy people. The study included 50 thalassemia patients and 30 healthy controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to estimate the serum levels of GM-CSF and Neopterin. Serum levels of GM-CSF were significantly elevated in thalassemia patients when compared to healthy people (p &lt; 0.05), while serum levels of Neopterin showed no significant change between thalassemia patients and healthy controls. Both serum levels of GM-CSF and Neopterin showed no significant difference between Splenectomized and healthy controls. Total leukocyte counts, lymphocytes, MID (monocytes), platelets, and RBC were all significantly higher in thalassemia patients compared to healthy controls. But, granulocyte counts showed no significant difference between the thalassemia patients and the healthy controls. On the other hand, total leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes and platelets counts were significantly raised in splenectomized patients when compared to healthy controls and non-splenectomized patients, respectively. We came to the conclusion that thalassemia patients have a high immune cell count, which is most likely due to the antigenic difficulties posed by blood transfusions. On the other hand, these patients have an impaired immune system.</p> Sonia Elia Ishaq, Taban Kamal Rasheed, Dara K. Mohammad Copyright (c) 2022 Sonia Elia Ishaq, Taban Kamal Rasheed, Dara K. Mohammad Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000