Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences en-US (Prof. Dr. Muhammed Abdulbaki Ibrahim) (Technical support) Mon, 26 Feb 2024 15:55:47 +0000 OJS 60 Surface Modifications of Zirconia Dental Implant for Improving Osseointegration <p>The aim of the current review is focused on compiling a comprehensive overview of the zirconia surface modification for implant interface osseointegration. Background: The importance of osseointegration for patients has notably gained importance and been accompanied by a dramatic increase in the number of relevant products and procedures over several decades, with a concomitant rise in publications on this topic. An electronic search was conducted across Ovid Medline, complemented by a manual search across individual databases, such as Cochrane, Web of Science databases, and Google Scholar for the purpose of literature analysis on the mentioned topic. The studies were reviewed and compared. This article summarizes the current scientific and clinical opinions through a brief review with regards to the preferred way of zirconia surface treatment and its impact on osseointegration. There are controversies in terms of performing zirconia surface treatment. Surface bio-inertness of zirconia implants result in limited osseointegration compared to titanium implants.</p> Adil Othman Abdullah, Saya Hadi Raouf Copyright (c) 2024 Adil Othman Abdullah, Saya Hadi Raouf Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Resistance of Infections Among Hospitalized Burn Patients in Asia: A Systematic Review <p>Burn injuries cause a considered number of deaths, mainly due to infections. Many low and middle-income countries in Asia lack data on the causes of burn infections and their antimicrobials susceptibility patterns. This systematic review was conducted to analyze Asian studies on the main agents of infection among hospitalized burn patients and their antimicrobials resistance to guide the empirical treatment which is very important for nosocomial infection control.</p> <p>A literature search was performed in electronic databases to identify related studies between 2013 and 2022. All the finding studies were screened to ensure compliance with including criteria.</p> <p>After the full screening of the articles, 24 studies were included in this work. The majority of pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (63.5%). The pooled prevalence of isolated bacteria of burn infection revealed that <em>A. baumannii</em> (23.8%), <em>P. aeruginosa</em> (20%), <em>S. aureus </em>(19.7%), and <em>K. pneumoniae</em> (11.5%) were the most frequent. According to the pooled results of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) of the included studies, most strains of isolated bacteria were multidrug-resistant (MDR). For gram-negative bacteria, the susceptibility pattern varies greatly according to the genus. The levofloxacin is the only common effective antimicrobial in different percentages. <em>Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) accounted for 70.4% of the isolated S. aureus. Vancomycin and linezolid have a high susceptibility for all gram-positive cocci.</p> <p>This review suggests that the empirical therapy of hospitalized burn patients in Asia should depend on the combination of antimicrobials that include levofloxacin to prevent increasing MDR emergence in the future. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the clinical effect of these procedures.</p> Zean Zefenkey, Salah Mahdi Al-Bader , Hama Tellawi Copyright (c) 2024 Zean Zefenkey, Salah Mahdi Al-Bader , Hama Tellawi Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Vehicle Detection, Counting, and Classification System based on Video using Deep learning Models <p>Traffic analysis is one of the crucial tasks of intelligent transport system that utilizes deep learning for range of purposes. Many tasks, such as vehicle recognition, vehicle counting, traffic violation monitoring, vehicle speed monitoring, vehicle density and so on, can be accomplished by using cameras installed in strategic locations along roads. In this paper powerful deep learning techniques such as (Yolov5, Mask R-CNN, SSD) and state-of-the-art object tracking algorithm known as DeepSORT was used to perform real time vehicle detection and counting in a video. A new highway vehicle detection dataset with overall of 32,265, instances of four vehicle classes named: bus, car, motorbike, truck was created in this paper and utilized for training vehicle detection and counting system. Result shows that average counting accuracy by using Yolov5 combined DeepSORT reaches to 95% while reaches to 91% by using Mask R-CNN combined DeepSORT and 84% by using SSD combined DeepSORT in hard environment. From the experimental work, counting accuracy by using Yolov5 outperforms other two deep learning techniques.</p> Tara Saber Ismail, Abbas M. Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Tara Saber Ismail, Abbas M. Ali Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MASK-RCNN on the diagnoses of lung cancer in Kurdistan Region of Iraq <p>Cancer is one of the danger diseases in our life, especially lung cancer is one of the most effected organs by cancer and causes death. The early detection of the tumor is very important issue for staging the cancer phases, usually the shape and size of the tumor are considered for classify the cancer type, calculation size of the tumor area and detecting it in accurate way will help to save patient life, this paper uses Mask-RCNN to analyze and detect malignant and benign tumor with real dataset of CT scan lung cancer images in (Kurdistan Region of Iraq) KRI, also develop calculating area size of tumor in cm<sup>2</sup>. After training and testing the system accuracy 96.59%, sensitivity 95%, specificity 95% and F_1 score 99.65% have been achieved. The study concludes that Mask-RCNN is a very good model for diagnoses cancer tumors and can help radiologists to detect and stage the cancer.</p> Krmanj F. Taher, Abbas M. Ali, Gullanar M. Hadi Copyright (c) 2024 Krmanj F. Taher, Abbas M. Ali, Gullanar M. Hadi Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A New Approach to Cohesion Measurement: Region-Based Clustering Validation <p>Clustering assigns objects to clusters based on similarity, aiming to ensure that objects within the same cluster are similar and those in different clusters are dissimilar. Evaluating clustering quality is crucial and challenging. Thus, researchers have proposed clustering validation indices namely internal and external validation indices. Internal indices assess clustering quality using intrinsic information within a dataset. We focus on internal validation indices for their real-world applicability. In this paper, we have proposed a novel region-based internal validation (RCV) index. Our index incorporates the division of each cluster into three distinct regions which are the inner, middle, and outer regions. according to the clusters' center and their corresponding radius, we split each cluster into the aforementioned regions. The average distance is then computed for each region, and a penalty factor is applied to these average distances. By summing up the three penalized average distances, a Region Cluster Validation (RCV) score is obtained for each cluster. The RCV scores for all clusters are then summed together to yield an overall measure of cluster validity. A lower index value indicates better clustering quality. Experiment results on the synthetic and real-world datasets exhibit the usability and effectiveness RCV index.<strong> </strong></p> Sakar Salar Salih, Polla Fattah Copyright (c) 2024 Sakar Salar Salih, Polla Fattah Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Structural Properties of Lead Oxide-Doped Zinc Tellurite Glasses <p>The melt quenching technique was used to create a ternary (90-x) TeO<sub>2</sub> - xPbO -10ZnO glass system (x = 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 mol%). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique is used for improving the amorphous nature of the glass samples. In addition, to examine the structural characteristics of the glass samples, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy are used. Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the impact of PbO on the glass structure. A strong frequency peak at 729.63-774.69 cm<sup>-1 </sup>was detected in the Raman spectra, indicating that the TeO<sub>4</sub> and TeO<sub>3</sub>/TeO<sub>3+1</sub> structural units make up the majority of the glass network. The TeO<sub>3</sub>/TeO<sub>3+1</sub> structural unit contain non-bonding oxygen molecules that are stretched in the Pb-O, Zn-O, Te-O, and Te-O-Te bridging configurations, vibrations, and Raman spectra.<strong> </strong></p> Hiwa L. Hamad, Saman Q. Mawlud Copyright (c) 2024 Hiwa L. Hamad, Saman Q. Mawlud Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Evaluation of New Heterocyclic Compounds Bearing a Biologically Active Sulfadiazine Moiety <p> </p> <p>The eco-friendly techniques were utilized for the straightforward synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds bearing the sulfadiazine moiety by employing ultrasound irradiation techniques. Initially, sulfadiazine (1) was subjected to diazotization, followed by a coupling reaction with an activated methylene group (ethyl acetoacetate) to yield a hydrazone compound (3). Subsequently, the coupling adducts (3) were reacted with ethyl benzoylacetate, benzyl hydrazine, thiosemicarbazide, and guanidine under ultrasound irradiation, leading to the formation of pyridazine (4), pyrazolines (5, 6), and pyrimidine (7), respectively. Furthermore, when pyrazoline compound (6) was treated with chloroacetone and bromoaceophenone under ultrasound conditions, thiazole compounds (6a) and (6b) were formed, respectively. Additionally, new derivatives (10) and (11) were synthesized through diazotizing compound (7), followed by coupling reactions with an activated methylene group (acetylacetone) and reactions with urea and thiourea, respectively, all under ultrasound conditions. All the synthesized compounds were characterized using spectroscopic techniques such as FT IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR spectra. The synthesized chemicals exhibited promising antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and Candida albicans fungi, as assessed through the broth microdilution technique.</p> Jala Bahjat Ziwar Copyright (c) 2024 Jala Bahjat Ziwar Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 First-Time Finds: Eight Rare Mushroom Species in Kurdistan's Wilderness <p>Seventeen mushroom species from fourteen genera were collected and identified from various locations, such as: Bardarash, Barzan, Erbil city center, Hiran, Mergasor, Shaqlawa, Khalefan, Tawska and Taqtaq. The following genus and species have been identified: <em>Agaricus bisporus, A. campestris, A. incultorum,</em> <em>Coprinus comatus, Lycoperdon umbrinum, Amanita virosa, Panaeolus semiovatus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Omphalina pyxidate</em>,<em> O. rosella</em>, <em>Phallus impudicus</em><em>, </em><em>Fomitopsis betulina,</em> <em>Ganoderma applanatum, Daedaleopsis confragosa, lactarius vellereus, Helvella leucopus </em>and <em>Bisporella citrina</em><em>. </em>Seven genera (8 species) of mushrooms were discovered for the first timein kurdistan region-Iraq, such as: <em>Lycoperdon umbrinum, Amanita virosa, Omphalina pyxidate</em>,<em> O. rosella</em>,<em> Phallus impudicus, Daedaleopsis confragosa, Helvella leucopus </em>and <em>Bisporella citrina.</em> The goal of this research is to investigate and identify wild mushrooms that naturally occur in the Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, in various areas and during various seasons. </p> Nareen Q. FaqeAbdulla, Hero M. Ismael, Musa I. Taha, Farid M. Toma, Sanar A. Suleman Copyright (c) 2024 Nareen Q. FaqeAbdulla, Hero M. Ismael, Musa I. Taha, Farid M. Toma, Sanar A. Suleman Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Some Terrestrial Snails: First Report <p>Land snail identification researches in Iraq is limited. In Erbil-Iraq, a study was carried out to explore the identification of various land snails. In earlier studies, most species determination was based on shell morphology, anatomy of genitalia, and mantle color, these criteria are continuously applied to describe new species/new records. Species of similar morphology have ambiguous identities, especially juvenile specimens, due to the great level of morphological variation observed in some snail species. Five species of land snails belong to four families were found in different locations of Erbil City, Iraq, during November 2020 to April 2021, when average temperature was arranged (4-25 C°). Morphology and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (<em>COI</em>) gene were used to identify specimens, <em>Rumina decollate</em> (Linnaeus, 1758), found for the first time in Iraq. In addition to four species: <em>Eobania vermiculata</em> (Müller, 1774), <em>Cornu aspersum</em> (Müller, 1774), <em>Cochlicella barbara</em> (Linnaeus, 1758) and <em>Polygyra cereolus</em> (Megerle von Mühlfeldt, 1818) were previously registered in Iraq and have never been recorded in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. This study highlights the impotence of genetic analyses along with morphological analyses in identification of species. This finding suggests, for precise evaluation of species diversity, molecular tools should be included in future biodiversity researches.</p> Shwan Khursheed Bashê, Sarwat Ekram Al-Qassab Copyright (c) 2024 Shwan Khursheed Bashê, Sarwat Ekram Al-Qassab Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the effect of selected plant extracts on Citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (RISSO) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) attacked different Citrus cultivars in Kurdistan Region <p>The plants <em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em>, <em>Ocimum basilicum</em>, <em>Alhaji maurorum</em>, and <em>Mentha longifolia</em> extracted in ethanol at different concentrations (0.5, 0.75, and 1%) were examined under laboratory conditions against Citrus mealybug, <em>Planococcus citri</em> (Risso) which is dangerous and widely distributed insects infesting most citrus cultivars in Iraq including Erbil province, Kurdistan region. The concentrations with the control (ethanol solvent only) were evaluated under laboratory conditions, and the lethal effectiveness of all extracts was examined after twelve and twenty-four hours of spraying. Data demonstrated that the Eucalyptus extracts and camel thorn grass had the highest reduction of the mealybug nymphs in both exposure times of spraying from treatment with the evaluated concentrations. The mortality effects of dark opal basil and mint extracts were also significant but in a mild manner. Exposure periods had a significant impact on the reduction of mealy bug nymphs too. The conclusions supported using of plant extracts as an alternative method to properly control this insect from the traditional chemical methods.</p> Nawzad B. Kadir, Pshtiwan A. Jalil Copyright (c) 2024 Nawzad B. Kadir, Pshtiwan A. Jalil Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000