Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences <p>Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences was originally launched in 1988 by Salahaddin University. Now it's one of the famous journals locally. </p> Salahaddin University - Erbil en-US Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 2218-0230 Determination the Location of an Air Inception Point for Different Configurations of Stepped Spillways using CFD <p>The goal of this research is to assess the impact of various factors on the position of the inception point for a stepped spillway, such as the number of steps, step angles, and discharges. It is feasible to determine the place of conception in this study using the computational fluid dynamics code Fluent. The volume of fluid (VOF) model is used to simulate air-water interaction on the free surface, and the turbulence closure is calculated using the realizable &nbsp;model. The code was tested against published experimental data of (Hunt and Kadavy 2009) for this purpose. The results of the ANSYS-fluent code compared with aforementioned experimental data and it match the experimental data. Then, the impact of the aforementioned factors on the location of an air inception point and its length were next investigated by simulating 45 cases in total.</p> Zaid P. O Abo A. A Copyright (c) 2023 Zaid P. O, Abo A. A 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 1 7 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.1 The influence of non-sinusoidal voltage sources on the steady state performance of different NEMA Designs of IMs <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 200%; margin: 6.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;">Voltage distortion has become one of the most common power quality problems in industrial applications, which has gained a great deal of attention in recent years because of the widespread usage of non-linear loads. Three-phase induction motors are widely used and one of the factors that confirm the reduction of their performance is the presence of harmonics in their voltage supply. In this paper, the impact of non-sinusoidal supply voltages on the steady-state performance of different NEMA designs of squirrel cage induction motors (SCIMs) is presented. It presents the analytical modeling based on the equivalent circuit taking into consideration the skin effect impedance that incorporates the skin effect on the rotor bars, which is used to investigate the motor performance under such conditions. The importance of this study is that it compares all NEMA designs in terms of electromagnetic torque, efficiency, losses, power factor, stator and rotor currents, and derating factor under a distorted supply voltage that is polluted by the most significant odd harmonic orders at adjustable levels in the range of (0–25) % of THD<sub>v</sub>%. The obtained results are compared and validated with the system employed by using MATLAB/Simulink software.</p> Nihaya Abdulghafoor Othman Hilmi Fadhil Ameen Copyright (c) 2023 Nihaya Abdulghafoor Othman, Hilmi Fadhil Ameen 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 8 19 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.2 Modelling Radial Oscillations of a Bubble in a Spherical Liquid-Filled Elastic Solid <p>In this paper, equation of a spherical bubble oscillations in Newtonian and viscous fluid with considering compressible fluid flow in a spherical liquid-filled elastic solid was developed. The exact solution of the linearisation and the numerical solution of the equation have been derived and compared.&nbsp; Then numerical calculations are performed to investigate the effects of compressibility parameter &nbsp;for gas and acoustic bubbles. We conclude that the amplitude of bubble radius oscillations increases with &nbsp;and the effects of &nbsp;is accumulating. Further, the discrepancy between the exact and numerical solutions increases with time when . However, the difference was not changed when the &nbsp;is smaller than . Dual frequency is also considered in the acoustic environment.</p> Dana A. Mohammedameen Kawa M.A. MANMI Waleed H. Aziz Copyright (c) 2023 Dana A. Mohammedameen, Kawa M.A. MANMI , Waleed H. Aziz 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 20 27 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.3 A theoretical investigation of S-Numerical Range with the respect to a family of projections <p>The idea of the -numerical range of a bounded linear operator on a complex Hilbert space with respect to a family of projections is introduced in this study. We provide a detailed description and discuss its relationship to the -numerical range and generalizations such as product S-numerical range. The significance of this new concept comes from its unifying character.</p> Wlat Hamad Botin Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Wlat Hamad, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Soran University, Soran, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 28 36 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.4 Impacts of Gadolinium-Based MRI contrast Agent on Hematological and Biochemical Tests for the Human Volunteers. <p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Gadolinium-Containing contrast agents are used in combination with MRI in some situations. The effects of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent (MAGNEVIST® Gadopentetate Dimeglumine Injection Bayer Standard 469 mg/ml (0.5 mmol/ml) on some hematological and biochemical tests for human male volunteers have been investigated. The study consisted of nine healthy individuals of human male volunteers; they were injected with intravenous (IV) contrast without being exposed to MRI. The cases are divided into four subgroups based on how long and how many times of blood samples were withdrawn after the intravenous (IV) contrast injection (9, 25, and 40 minutes). Blood samples were examined for twenty-seven hematological and biochemical parameters. The results proved that; after 9 min of injection with IV contrast, the WBCs count, LYM, MID%, and ALT decreased by 6%,6%, 4%, and 5%, respectively, and the concentration of GRA% and ESR increased by 5%. 25min after injection, concentrations of PLT increased significantly (P &lt; 0.05) by 4%, PCT %, LPCR %, MID, and ESR are increased non-significantly (P &gt; 0.05) by 4%, 5%, 7%, and 26%, respectively. After 40min of injections; MID, and MID% increased by 11% and 12%, respectively, and AST decreased by 4%. The maximum rise in ESR was increased by 31%. There was no substantial variation with time can be seen in electrolytes; Sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>), Potassium (K<sup>+</sup>), and Chloride (Cl<sup>-</sup>) under the effect of the intravenous contrast injection.</p> Belan Mohammed Ibrahim Asaad Hamid Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 Belan Mohammed Ibrahim, Asaad Hamid Ismail 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 37 44 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.5 Radiation Performance of Different Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Configuration Shapes Operating at 28 GHz <p>The radiation performance of different triangular microstrip patch antenna (TMPA) shapes such as right triangle (RTMPA), isosceles triangle (ITMPA), obtuse triangle (OTMPA), and equilateral triangle (ETMPA) operating at (28 GHz) are computed and compared using inset-fed techniques and Rogers-RT5880 substrate material of permittivity and (h=0.15 mm) height. The directivity, gain, efficiency, bandwidth, VSWR, S11 and 2D-radiation pattern for each mentioned triangular patch shapes are computed utilizing CST and HFSS method. The computed results reveal generally that the ETMPA provide better radiation performance whereas the OTMPA displays lower antenna radiation parameter values compared to the other considered ones. In addition, the antenna parameters of ETMPA with the use of coaxial probe fed are also simulated and the results are compared to those previously achieved experimentally and theoretically by other researchers. Generally, a good agreement between mentioned antenna parameter results is displayed and reliability of those achieved by CST with inset fed techniques is clearly observed. Moreover, the overall antenna parameter obtained, respectively, with CST and HFSS techniques for inset fed ETMPA are S11 (-28.68, -20.64), VSWR (1.076,1.20), gain (5.82, 6.29) dB, directivity (6.85, 7.09) dB, bandwidth (0.452, 0.369) GHz, efficiency (78.9%, 83.2%) and with a small antenna size of about (3.88 mm<sup>3</sup>) which is most reliable for 5G technology application systems.</p> Bushra Adnan Rahman Sattar Othman Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Bushra Adnan Rahman , Sattar Othman Hasan 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 45 55 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.6 Influence of some Bio chars and organic fertilizers on some biological parameters of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) at Sulaimani Governorate, IKR. <p> This study was conducted in July 2021 until October 2022 at kanipanka research farm, Sulaimani governorate, IKR with GPS readings of 35<sup>0</sup> 22’ 25.3<sup>”</sup> N, 45<sup>0</sup> 43<sup>’</sup> 24.5” E to test, the influence of five levels (0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) of some treatments such as control (a1), rise husk bio char (a2), oak charcoal (a3) and poultry manure (a5) which equivalent to 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6% w/w% of soil, also five levels (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) of Humic acid (a4) to examine the quantity and quality of sweet corn. Additionally 240kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of triple super phosphate was added to each experimental unit. The result showed that the poultry manure has a great effect on sweet corn compared to biochars due to high content of phosphorus and nitrogen in poultry manure, also biochars such as rice husk and charcoal were effect on TSS%, P concentration in seed and plants. The highest yield (20.61ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded from the interaction treatments of (42 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) of poultry manure, also the highest protein %, oil % and chlorophyll content (14.90%, 5.93% and 44.80 SPAD value) were recorded from the interaction treatments of 56 ton ha<sup>-1</sup> of poultry manure. </p> Bakhtyar abdulkadir Rashid Akram Othman Esmail Copyright (c) 2023 Bakhtyar abdulkadir Rashid, Akram Othman Esmail 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 56 68 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.7 Foliar application effect of gibberellic acid on growth, yield components and some qualitative characteristics of linseed (Linium usitatissimum L.) <p> The highest values (22.16, 18.63, 0.44, 5.58 and 7.25) % for oleic, linoleic, linolenic, palmitic and stearic acid respectively which were recorded from the interaction treatment of GA3 (375 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) x Syrian Cultivar. Strong positive correlation was found between seed yield to each of (plant height (cm), fruiting stem (cm), number of branch plant<sup>-1</sup>, stem width (mm), number of capsule plant<sup>-1</sup>, number seed capsule<sup>-1</sup>, seed index (g), harvest index %, oil yield (<em>M</em>g ha<sup>-1</sup>) with the correlation coefficient(r) values of (0.87**,0.86**,0.89**.0.81**,0.79**,0.77**,0.98** ,0.96**and 0.99**<strong><sub>.</sub></strong></p> Bahar Jalal Mahmood Kazhal Kamal Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 Bahar Jalal Mahmood, Kazhal Kamal Muhammad 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 69 78 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.8 Measuring Butt Log and Middle Log Volume of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis Using Different Methods in Erbil Province <p>The volume of each butt log and middle log of an individual tree at a 5-meter log length was calculated by using five different formulas (Newton`s, Smalian`s, Huber`s, Hossfeld`s, and Centroid method). The volume of the butt logs and middle logs was compared to the real volume (control), which was calculated by aggregating the volume measurements at (0.5) meters using Newton's method. Measurements were taken from 50 trees of (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) planted in Al-Khabat area in Erbil governorate. The sampled trees presented diameter at breast height (DBH) ranged from 30.2 to 75.6 cm and total tree height range from 13 to 27 m. The result showed that Newton`s formula was superior to all other formulas for estimating butt log volume of eucalyptus tree species plantation and Smalian`s formula was less accurate than other formulas. On the other hand, the centroid method was superior to all other formulas for estimating the middle log volume of eucalyptus tree species in the district of khabat in Erbil province. Moreover, the Hossfeld formula was less accurate than other formulas.</p> Ameer Abdulazeez Abdulla Mohammed Hadayat Obeyed Copyright (c) 2023 Ameer Abdulazeez Abdulla, Mohammed Hadayat Obeyed 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 79 85 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.9 Secondary data collected from Ifraz-2 Erbil for Drinking Water Quality Assessment <p>The goal of the current study was to use the Water Quality Index (WQI) to evaluate the overall drinking water quality status in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, by estimating the quality of the Greater Zab River (raw water) and the water treatment plant WTP at Ifraz-2 on the Greater Zab River, a tributary of the Tigris River. Thirteen physicochemical parameters, including turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, alkalinity, chloride, sodium, potassium, nitrate, and sulfate, were evaluated between 2010 and 2021 using the WQI. The calculated WQI for the Greater Zab River's raw water quality ranged from (140.532) to (422.455) and the calculated WQI for WTP (Ifraz-2) ranged from (44.197) to (69.118). Accordingly, the results of Greater Zab River water were categorized as "very poor," "poor," and "unsuitable" for drinking purposes during the studied period (2010–2021). Furthermore, the results of the computed WQI for WTP of (Ifraz-2) are classified as "Excellent" and "Good". According to WQI, the WTP of Ifraz-2 from the current study was of good quality and suitable for consumption by humans. As a result, the efficiency (E%) of the Ifraz-2 WTP was found to be more efficient in 2016 (89.49%) than in other years and suitable for drinking. Except for a few samples, the physicochemical quality of most drinking water samples during the current study was within WHO limits.</p> Lanja Omer Tahir Copyright (c) 2023 Lanja Omer Tahir 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 86 96 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.10 Influence of Bamboo Biochar and Gibberellic Acid on Vegetative and Flower Production of Tagetes erecta L. <p> This research was carried out in open field Grdarasha, Agriculture College, Salahaddin University through March 18<sup>th</sup> to August 21<sup>th</sup> 2021 to study the effects of Bamboo biochar (0, 3, 6 and 9 ton.ha<sup>-1</sup>) as soil application and foliar spray GA<sub>3</sub> (0, 200, 400 ml.l<sup>-1</sup>) on (<em>Tagetes erecta </em>L.) vegetative growth and flowering. The maximum number of leaves.plant<sup>-1</sup>, number of branches plant<sup>-1</sup>, vegetative growth dry mass (511.24, 61.82 and 115.63g) were observed from 9 ton.ha<sup>-1</sup> of Bamboo biochar, and the highest stem diameter (22.31mm) was recorded from 6 ton.ha<sup>-1</sup> of Bamboo biochar. However, the maximum values of number of leaves per plant (502.20), plant height (54.00 cm) and vegetative growth dry weight (109.09 g) were recorded in a higher GA<sub>3</sub> concentration 400 ml.l<sup>-1</sup>. The interaction treatment of 6 ton.ha<sup>-1</sup> of Bamboo biochar and 400 ml.l<sup>-1</sup> GA<sub>3</sub> gave the highest value of plant height and stem diameter (55.83 cm and 24.00 mm respectively). The best result time to reach %50 flowering (55.00 days) was obtained from 3 ton.ha<sup>-1</sup> of Bamboo biochar, and the best results of time to reach 50% flowering (55.83 days), number of flowers per plant(46.02) and number of flowers per plot(184.08) were obtained from 400 ml.l<sup>-1</sup> of GA<sub>3</sub>. The interaction treatment of 400 ml.l<sup>-1</sup> of GA<sub>3</sub> without Bamboo biochar gave the highest of number of flowers per plant (57.58), number of flowers per plot (230.33), flowers fresh weight per plant (212.17 g), flowers fresh weight per plot (848.67 g) and flowers fresh weight per hectar (7.07 ton).</p> pareekhan nasir kanaby Sawsan Mohammed Saeed Copyright (c) 2023 pareekhan nasir kanaby, Sawsan Mohammed Saeed 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 97 106 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.11 Road Pothole Detection Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery and Deep Learning Technique <p> Potholes are considered the main factor for road defects, which leads to road status deterioration, which, consequently will lead to increased road accidents. The first step in road maintenance is to inspect the road surface and then accurately detect potholes. However, manually identifying them is costly and time-consuming. In this study, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery was used to create orthophotos of the roads and, using deep learning methods, potholes were detected. The used deep learning method in this study is the "you only look once" (YOLO) algorithm. YOLO is one of the "deep learning-based approaches" to detecting objects and is a single-stage network which requires only one forward propagation across the neural network and focuses on the entire image. The fourth version of YOLO is YOLOV4, which has two different architectures (YOLOv4 and YOLOv4-tiny). Two roads were chosen as the study areas, and to generate the orthophotos of the roads, UAV was used to acquire images. To train both methods in the process of detecting potholes using deep learning, 5300 images were used, 90% used for training and 10% applied for testing. The two used architectures were trained for 6000 iterations. Both methods were evaluated based on the average loss, mean average precision (mAP), and training and testing time. The results showed that the (mAP) values for YOLOv4 and YOLOv4-tiny were 91. 2% and 85.7%, respectively. At the end of the 6000 iterations, the average loss for YOLOv4 is 0.30% and for YOLOv4-tiny is 0.34%. In the training process, YOLOv4 needs 29 seconds for each iteration, while YOLOv4-tiny requires only 8 seconds. In the test process, YOLOv4-tiny is faster at detecting potholes than YOLOv4. The approaches were tested on orthophotos created by processing UAV photos. When comparing the detection of both architectures with visual detection, the results showed that YOLOv4 was able to detect most of the potholes on roads, but YOLOv4-tiny detected a lower number of potholes.</p> Dana Mohammed Ali Haval A.Sadeq Copyright (c) 2023 Dana Mohammed Ali, Haval A.Sadeq 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 107 115 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.12 The combined Application of Iron and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria to enhance Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and yield <p>This study had the objective of evaluating the efficiency of prepared iron and phosphate biofertilizers in improving wheat growth and yield. To isolate bacteria that dissolve iron and phosphate, different soil samples were collected from the Erbil governorate, a total of eighteen iron solubilizing bacteria were selected on a modified agar medium and all isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescence. Twenty-two isolates of phosphate solubilizing bacteria were recognized and referred to P. putida, P.fluorescens, and Bacillus megaterium using microscopical, cultural, physiological and molecular tests. According to iron and phosphate solubilizing efficiency test, the most efficient isolate of iron solubilizing bacteria (Pfl3) and P-solubilizin bacteria (Ppu2, Bm14) were selected for biofertilizers preparation&nbsp; Local and imported iron and phosphate biofertilizers were applied in pot experiment. Most biofertilizers were significantly increased yield components of wheat plants. Maximum shoot length, root length, tillers number,1000 seed weight, spike number and yield (99.60cm, 58.95cm, 22, 38.75g. 20, 5.52 ton/ha&nbsp; respectively) were recorded by incoculation with P. Flourence + P. putida +B. megatrium significantly higher than uninoculated control and treatments with imported biofertilizer. It can be concluded that local iron and phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates can be used for Fe and P biofertilizers. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> dedawan K.Rahman Aras M Khudhur Haifa S Yaseen Copyright (c) 2023 dedawan K.Rahman, Aras M Khudhur, Haifa S Yaseen 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 116 124 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.13 EVALUATION OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CADMIUM, LEAD AND ZINK IN SOME COMMON CANNED FOODS IN ERBIL CITY MARKETS <p>This study was conducted for assess health hazard and concentration of some heavy metals including, Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), and Lead (Pb) in some canned foods involved canned fish, canned cheese and canned tomato paste that selected randomly from various markets in Erbil city. The design was completely randomized (CRD) with three replications. The metals content were determined by atomic absorption, in mg/kg, wet weight. However, the non-carcinogenic health risk of determined heavy metals is assessed using the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI).&nbsp; The outcomes showed that Zn has the highest level among heavy metals in all canned foods, While for Pb and Cd content in all samples were within acceptable range guideline that reported by WHO-FAO. According to the values of HQ and HI heavy metal in canned food, pose no health concern with HI &lt; 1. Given the increased demands for canned foods as a result of changing lifestyles, continuous monitoring of canned products is essential.</p> <p>Keywords: food contamination, heavy metals, health risk assessment, canned foods</p> Shahla Sherwan Rasool Dalshad Aziz Darwesh Copyright (c) 2023 Shahla Sherwan Rasool, Dalshad Aziz Darwesh 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 125 134 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.14 Influence of watering periods and organic fertilizer on seedling growth and development of two species of oak tree; Quercus aegilops and Quercus libani <p>Raisin drought seasons and temperature at last decades are the maximum prominent threats for the world. It is predictable that there will be several regional influences by worldwide climate alteration, especially on freshwater reserves, energy, biodiversity, agriculture, human health, forest trees and sea level. This experiment was aimed for estimate the influence of watering periods and organic fertilizers on seedling growth and development of the two oak species<em>; Q. aegilops</em> L. and <em>Q. libani </em>L<em>.</em>. The trial was conducted under three levels of water periods (once every 4 days, 8 days and once every12 days) and with three organic fertilizer levels (control, 25 gm, and 50 gm per pot) were used two times when seedlings age was 3 and 6 months. The result showed that the organic fertilizer with watering periods had a significant effect on seedling growth and physiological properties. The results indicated that the highest value Leaf number and seedling height increment (5.22 plant<sup>-1</sup>, and 2.20 cm, respectively) were both recorded from (4 days watering plant<sup>-1</sup>). The highest values of leaf area (10.95cm<sup>2</sup>) were recorded from the (zero or control organic fertilizer plant<sup>-1)</sup> in <em>Q. aegilops</em>. The highest value moistures content was (63.52 %) were recorded from interaction between (8 days of watering*25gm organic fertilizer). Therefore, it is concluded that <em>Q. aegilops</em> and <em>Q. libani</em> seedlings could success under organic fertilizer and watering periods, especially seedlings were showed best performance under well water availability.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Watering periods, Organic fertilizer<strong>, </strong></em><em>Q. aegilops, Q. libani</em><em>, </em><em>Morphological, and physiological pareameters</em> <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Karzan Rashid Hamad Ako Hussein Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 Karzan Rashid Hamad, Ako Hussein Mahmood 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 135 142 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.15 Properties of Oil Extracts from Local Sesame Seeds (Sesamum Indicum L.) <p>This study was conducted to determine the main physiochemical properties of sesame oil extracted from three sesame seeds samples, the differences between mixed (A-C) and the sieved sesame seed (A1-C3): which were taken from Sharzoor in Sulaymaniyah (S, mixed brown), Akre in Duhok (A, mixed brown) and Mala Omar in Hawler (MO, mixed brown). And to evaluate the differences between the OIL characteristics of mixed (Akre ,A, Sharzoor B, Mala Omar ,C ) and the sieved seeds with three different mesh size sieve (1.50, 1.35, 1) mm included (A1,A2,A3,.B1,B2,B3 ,C1,C2 and C3). The properties that included to study in this work were viscosity, specific gravity, fatty acid content, acid value, iodine value, and peroxide value. From the results of this study, it was found that the Mala Omar sample in all parts especially C2 48.42% is considered good source for oil, the viscosity of (hawler) samples especially C3 with 0.0490 Pas, the lowest viscosity while the A1 has a maximum viscosity 0.0525 Pas. More than 80% of sesame seeds' fatty acid composition is unsaturated, with high concentrations of oleic, linoleic, and lenolinic acids. Saturated fatty acids, primarily palmitic and stearic acids, account for the remaining 20%. Acid value in sample A1 of sharazoor sesame oil had the lowest content (2.1030 mg KoH\gm oil), whereas sample C3 had the greatest concentration. Omar Mala 15.5815. A3 sharazoor sample a higher 11.4954 gm I2\100gm oil, iodine value. While the maximum peroxide value was found in the B3 sesame oil sample of 15.9267 meq/kg, and the lowest peroxide value was found in the B sesame oil sample at 3.8850 meq/kg.</p> Sheraz Zuher Karem Safea Sabir Taha Copyright (c) 2023 Sheraz Zuher Karem , Safea Sabir Taha 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 143 149 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.16 Hydrometeorological Data Analysis and Drought Indices of Rawandoz Area, Iraqi-Kurdistan Region <p>Water balancing techniques are strategies for resolving key theoretic and applied hydrologic challenges. The primary goals of the study are to examine the climatic characteristics and conditions that will be utilized in the water balancing approach used in the Rawandoz located in northeastern Iraq. The meteorological data from Soran meteorological station’s 2000 to 2020 were applied to analyze the climate patterns of the research region. The annual rainfall average is 750.50 mm, while the annual evaporation is 1497.80 mm. The average monthly humidity, temperature, and sunshine remained 73.8 percent, 18.50 °C, and 8 hours/day, respectively. The Kharrufa technique has been calculated the potential evapotranspiration (PET), water deficit and surplus and the Soil Conservation Service method (SCS) has been used to calculate surface runoff (Rs). The annual potential evapotranspiration, water surplus, and deficit are calculated to be 1900.27 mm, 430.10 mm, and 1579.90 mm, respectively, with an annual runoff of 376 mm. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) was produced to assess climatic drought over a variety of duration; the mean value is 0.562, indicating that the area is moist. The results of many climate classification reveal that the study area in humid to moist climate classification.</p> Shevan J. Jirjees Imaddadin O. Hassan Shwan O. Seeyan Copyright (c) 2023 Shevan J. Jirjees, Imaddadin O. Hassan, Shwan O. Seeyan 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 150 159 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.17 In Vitro Control of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection by Some Biocides used in Erbil Hospitals <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Screen the multidrug resistance <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>isolates which is the main causative agent of nosocomial infection in Erbil hospitals. And monitoring the effectiveness of some of the most widely used biocides in our hospitals on these isolates and select the most effective one to be used in infection control of these hospitals. <strong>Methods:</strong> This study included 81 klebsiella spp. isolates were collected from different clinical specimen from different hospitals in Erbil City from 1August to 1 November 2021. Susceptibility against 50 isolates of <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> was assessed for 10 antibiotics by the disc-agar method and ten biocides by the cup plate agar diffusion method. <strong>Results:</strong> From (81) isolates only 50 (%62) were <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>. There were 2(4%) isolates not biofilm producers and 48(96%) isolates as biofilm producers. Their antibiotic resistance profile showed all isolates (% 100) was resistance to Ampicillin, while (%74) isolates was showed susceptibility to Imipenim and Meropenim and (%57.1) to ciprofloxacin. Also, Statistical analysis showed that the higher and lower mean of biocide were Virkon and Alcohol- Base which were 51.54mm and 12.91mm respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our observations imply that side by side bacteria increase the ability to resist against biocides. In addition, Virkon was the most effective biocide against <em>K. pneumoniae</em> isolates. We recommend pay attention to choose the best biocide to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria and control the infection in hospitals.</p> Halima Mohammed Saber Payman Akram Hamasaeed Copyright (c) 2023 Halima Mohammed Saber, Payman Akram Hamasaeed 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 160 168 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.18 Optimisation of CAFE assay for the evaluation of ethanol preference in Drosophila melanogaster <p><strong> </strong></p> <p> Alcohol is one of the most harmful psychoactive drugs which can cause various medical, physical, social, financial, and work-related problems.</p> <p>The fruit fly <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em> has been proposed to be a useful model to explore alcohol-induced behavioural, cellular and molecular mechanisms. The capillary feeder assay (CAFE) has been used to measure the development of preference for alcohol that is observable in <em>Drosophila</em> as well in mammals including humans.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate and optimize the CAFE assay to validate further studies using this technique. The parameters that were investigated were: the ethanol concentration and length of exposure, both during pre-exposure and during the preference assay, and whether the sex of the flies affected the outcome. The results indicate that a minimum of two days of pre-exposure of 15% ethanol is required to induce preference for 15% vs 5% ethanol, while there was no significant difference in extending the preference assay beyond two hours and males and females flies behaved in similar manner. Overall these results further validate and better define the usefulness of the CAFE assay for the measurement of alcohol preference in <em>Drosophila</em> as a method to explore the mechanisms of preference which may apply also to higher organisms.</p> Jiyan Ali Omar Copyright (c) 2023 Jiyan Ali Omar 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 169 175 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.19 Epidemicity and Genotyping of Pediculus humanus capitis de Geer by Cytochrome Oxidase I gene among Syrian refugees dwelling some camps of Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq <p>The objectives of the current study are to determine risk factors associated with the rampancy and molecular genotyping of the head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis de Geer) infesting Syrian refugees in some temporary camps of Erbil, Kurdistan region of Iraq. To meet the requirements of the study, some primary schools of refugee camps were chosen to collect the relevant data in the afore-mentioned city. The V-Comb trap method was used to obtain specimens of head lice from 202 students of both gender who attend refugee camp schools regularly. The analyzed data revealed that the prevalence rates of pediculosis among 6-10 and 11-15-year-old students were 69% and 64% respectively. The highest infestation rate (79%) was recorded among female students, whilst the lowest outbreak rate (61%) was detected among male students. Regarding the impact of hair lengths on the prevalence of the insect, the highest rate of infection (81.53%) was recorded for medium hair whilst the lowest rate (41.17%) was determined for long hairs. Concerning the hair posture factor, the rates of infestation were 100%, 73% and 55% for spring, straight, and wavy hairs respectively in the 6-10-year-old group. Ultimately, Genomic DNA extraction were performed and Mitochondrion Cytochrome Oxidase I gene was used successfully for PCR amplification and sanger sequencing for genotyping then submission of our query sequences to the NCBI GenBank . </p> Hemdad H. Mawlood Copyright (c) 2023 Hemdad H. Mawlood 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 176 183 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.20 Kinetic studies of copper-catalyzed homocoupling reactions of arylboronic acids in aqueous micellar media <p>The kinetic studies for copper-catalyzed homocoupling phenylboronic acids (1a-d) have been successfully carried out in an aqueous micellar medium under environmentally benign conditions (water as a solvent, micelle to help solubilize hydrophobic adducts) in this study cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB ) is used as surfactant to produce micelle. Using different copper salts and copper complexes as catalysts under benign to mild conditions at a temperature range (40-65˚C, under air) without the addition of any additives (base, oxidant, and ligands). The reactions were followed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the absorbances were measured at maximum wavelengths for the biphenyl production of each five selected (1a-d). The observed rate constants (kobs) were calculated using a pseudo-first-order equation and unsubstituted 1a was selected for optimization processes. The experimental results showed good to excellent curve fit (R2=0.9967-0.9998) to the pseudo-first-order equation and origin software was used for this purpose. Among all copper catalysts, the observed rate constant (kobs) for cupric acetate (Cu(OAc)2)is much higher than others, (kobs=0.1605 min-1), while CuCl2.2H2O has a minimum observed rate constant, kobs=0.0216min-1. The two copper complexes [Cu(4-mba)2(tmeda)], and [Cu(3-mba)2(H2O)2(tmeda)] require a mild condition (85˚C) which is higher than other copper catalysts when 1a is used as reactant the value of kobs is (0.0176, 0.0343 min-1) respectively, while using p-tolylboronic acid (1b) as reactant the value of kobs is (0.0173, 0.0147 min-1) respectively.</p> Hawta K. Abdullah Mazin A. Othman Copyright (c) 2023 Hawta K. Abdullah, Mazin A. Othman 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 184 204 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.21 Association of Hormonal imbalance in menopausal women with cardiovascular disease in Erbil city <p>Menopausal women have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is thought to be due to an imbalance in serum estradiol and total testosterone level. To find out the effect of menopause on sex hormone levels such as estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone in serum menopausal women and to elevate the relationship between these hormones and CVD. This case-control study included (224) participants (menopausal women with CVD and non-CVD) in the age range (of 40-69 years) who visited (The surgical specialty hospital cardiac center and Hawler teaching hospital). A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Fasting serum metabolic parameters and hormones were measured which included (E2, TT, P, SHBG) and (Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and VLDL). Women with CVD represented 60.7%., who had previously been diagnosed by specializes in the cardiac center, and healthy menopausal women represented 39.3%. The mean value of E2 was significantly lower in menopausal women with CVD (20.066±1.773 Pg/ml vs 29.455±3.807 Pg/ml) along with serum progesterone level (0.234±0.0102 ng/ml vs 0.452±0.137 ng/ml) and SHBG level (31.705±1.085 nmol/L vs 37.191±1.804 nmol/L) compared to healthy menopausal women (for all, p&lt;0.05). On the other hand, a significantly elevated level of total testosterone (17.970±1.28 nmol/L vs 10.552±.99nmol/L) was observed in menopausal women with CVD compared with healthy women (p&lt;0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed the E2 negative correlation with LDL-C (p&lt;0.01), and TT negative correlation with HDL-C (P&lt;0.01). Low serum levels in terms of sex hormones, (E2, P, and SHBG) with high-level serum TT might be contributed to cardiovascular disease.</p> Halala H. Mohammed Leweza B. Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 Halala H. Mohammed, Leweza B. Abbas 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 205 216 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.22 Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of a New Series of Tetrazole Compounds <p>The current study involves synthesis and characterization of a new family of tetrazole derivatives. The synthetic pathway includes two steps, as described here: Initial step was synthesis of N-(4-(6-methylbenzothiazol-2-yl) phenyl)-1-(substituted phenyl)methanimine (1-7), via the reaction of 4-(6-methylbenzothiazol-2-yl)aniline with a variety of substituted benzaldehydes in absolute ethanol utilizing glacial acetic acid as catalyst. The next step was synthesis of tetrazole derivatives (8-14) by the reaction of the synthesized imines (1-7) with sodium azide in dry dioxane. Spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR and<sup> 13</sup>C-NMR) were used to determine the structures of the produced products. The synthesized compounds were tested for antibacterial activity against two types of bacteria<em> Staphylococcus aureus </em>(Gram +ve) and<em> Escherichia coli</em> (Gram -ve). The results showed good activities against both types of bacteria.</p> Bana S. Abdulrahman Roshna B. Nadr Copyright (c) 2023 Bana S. Abdulrahman, Roshna B. Nadr 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 34 6 217 229 10.21271/ZJPAS.34.6.23