Association of Hormonal imbalance in menopausal women with cardiovascular disease in Erbil city


  • Halala H. Mohammed Department of Basic Science, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Leweza B. Abbas Department of Basic Science, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



: Sex hormone, Estradiol, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Total testosterone, Menopausal women, and, Cardiovascular disease.


Menopausal women have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is thought to be due to an imbalance in serum estradiol and total testosterone level. To find out the effect of menopause on sex hormone levels such as estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone in serum menopausal women and to elevate the relationship between these hormones and CVD. This case-control study included (224) participants (menopausal women with CVD and non-CVD) in the age range (of 40-69 years) who visited (The surgical specialty hospital cardiac center and Hawler teaching hospital). A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Fasting serum metabolic parameters and hormones were measured which included (E2, TT, P, SHBG) and (Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and VLDL). Women with CVD represented 60.7%., who had previously been diagnosed by specializes in the cardiac center, and healthy menopausal women represented 39.3%. The mean value of E2 was significantly lower in menopausal women with CVD (20.066±1.773 Pg/ml vs 29.455±3.807 Pg/ml) along with serum progesterone level (0.234±0.0102 ng/ml vs 0.452±0.137 ng/ml) and SHBG level (31.705±1.085 nmol/L vs 37.191±1.804 nmol/L) compared to healthy menopausal women (for all, p<0.05). On the other hand, a significantly elevated level of total testosterone (17.970±1.28 nmol/L vs 10.552±.99nmol/L) was observed in menopausal women with CVD compared with healthy women (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed the E2 negative correlation with LDL-C (p<0.01), and TT negative correlation with HDL-C (P<0.01). Low serum levels in terms of sex hormones, (E2, P, and SHBG) with high-level serum TT might be contributed to cardiovascular disease.


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