The combined Application of Iron and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria to enhance Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and yield


  • dedawan K.Rahman Department of Soil and Water, College of Agricultural Engineering Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Aras M Khudhur Department of Soil and Water, College of Agricultural Engineering Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Haifa S Yaseen Department of Soil and Water, College of Agricultural Engineering Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Wheat, Biofertilizer, Ps.Putida, P. fluorescense , B. megatrium.


This study had the objective of evaluating the efficiency of prepared iron and phosphate biofertilizers in improving wheat growth and yield. To isolate bacteria that dissolve iron and phosphate, different soil samples were collected from the Erbil governorate, a total of eighteen iron solubilizing bacteria were selected on a modified agar medium and all isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescence. Twenty-two isolates of phosphate solubilizing bacteria were recognized and referred to P. putida, P.fluorescens, and Bacillus megaterium using microscopical, cultural, physiological and molecular tests. According to iron and phosphate solubilizing efficiency test, the most efficient isolate of iron solubilizing bacteria (Pfl3) and P-solubilizin bacteria (Ppu2, Bm14) were selected for biofertilizers preparation  Local and imported iron and phosphate biofertilizers were applied in pot experiment. Most biofertilizers were significantly increased yield components of wheat plants. Maximum shoot length, root length, tillers number,1000 seed weight, spike number and yield (99.60cm, 58.95cm, 22, 38.75g. 20, 5.52 ton/ha  respectively) were recorded by incoculation with P. Flourence + P. putida +B. megatrium significantly higher than uninoculated control and treatments with imported biofertilizer. It can be concluded that local iron and phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates can be used for Fe and P biofertilizers.   


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