Response of Two Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genotypes to Foliar Application of Different Nano Fertilizers.
Keywords:Sunflower genotypes; Nano fertilizer; Growth; Yield; Quality.
A field experiment was conducted at two locations in Sulaimanya governorate (Ranya and Saruchawa) during the autumn growing season of 2021 to investigate the effect of different sources of Nano fertilizer on the growth, yield, and quality of two sunflower genotypes. A factorial experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates which included sunflower genotypes (Velko and Baroloro) and Nano foliar fertilizer (Control, Nano Zn, Nano NPK, Super Nano, and Nano Fe). The statistical analysis indicated a significant effect of both factors and their interactions on most of the studied traits. The results indicated that the Velko genotype requires a shorter period for all growth stages, moreover recorded maximum seed yield (5.73 and 5.86) t ha-1 at both locations. On the other hand, the results showed that Super Nano fertilizer affected significantly most of the studied traits and obtained the highest value for leaf area (56.11and 61.72 cm2), leaf area index (1.23and 1.36), head diameter (11.76 and 13.55), head weight (191.23 and 245.21), seed index (70.05 and 72.29), seed yield (5.73 and5.86 ) t ha-1, and oil (37.76 and 38.60) % in addition to protein (19.83 and 23.40) %. at both locations respectively. The interaction treatment (Velko x Super Nano) recorded the highest value of oil and protein content (37.93, 38.61) % and (24.50, 24.25) %, on the other hand, the lowest values for most of the studied characters were recorded from Baroloro and Control treatment.
A.O.A.C. 1980. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.12thEd.Washington, D.C.
Aboelkassem, K. M. 2021. Effect of growing season on yield and its components and oil quality of some Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes. SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(4), pp. 1–9. doi: 10.21608/svuijas.2021.85111.1127.
Ahmad, I., Jadoon, S.A., Said, A., Adnan, M., Mohammad, F. and Munsif, F., 2017. Response of sunflower varieties to NPK fertilization. Pure and Applied Biology (PAB), 6(1), pp.272-277.
Al-Myali, A.A.H., Alnuaimi, J.J.J. and Hussain, M.H., 2020. Effect of Bio-fertilizer, organic manure, Nano Zinc Oxid and interaction on the growth parameters for Sunflower plant Helianthus annuus L. Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 7(2), pp.1-19.
Al-Doori, S. 2017.Effect of zinc and boron foliar application on growth, yield, and quality of some sunflower genotypes. (Helianthus annuus L.), Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 45(1), pp. 299–318.
Al-Doori, S. A. M. 2014. Effect of diferent levels and timing of boron foliar application on growth, yield and quality of sunflower genotypes. (Helianthus annuus L.).,, College of Basic Education Researchers Journal Vol., 13(1), pp. 16–24. doi: 10.33899/magrj.2011.3110.
Aliatiyah, H. and Kadhim, S. H.2017. Response of some vegetative growth of genetic types of sun flowers and time spry with Humic acid,, Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 4(1), pp. 14–26.
Avazabadian, T., Sinaki, J.M., Hassani, N., Zarei, M. and Dashtban, A., 2012. The study of sunflower cultivars phenological stage based on BBCH stage. International Journal of Agriculture, 3(1), p.208.
Awan, I. U., Munir, M. and Baloch, M. S. 2011. Impact of Plant Densities and Npk Fertilization on Growth and Optimum Economic Return of Sunflower, Journal of Agriculture, 30(2), pp. 157–164.
Chapman, S.C., Hammer, G.L. and Palta, J.A., 1993. Predicting leaf area development of sunflower. Field Crops Research, 34(1), pp.101-112.
Dordas, C.A. and Sioulas, C., 2009. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Field Crops Research, 110(1), pp.35-43.
Easlon, H. M. and Bloom, A. J. 2014. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area,, Applications in Plant Sciences, 2(7), p. 1400033. doi: 10.3732/apps.1400033.
El-Sahookie , M. M. and Wahib, K., 1990. Applications in the Design and Analysis of Experiments. Dar Al Hekma for Printing & Publishing. Mosul.eriments. Dar Al Hekma for Printing & Publishing. Mosul.
Esmaeilian, Y., Sirousmehr, A.R., Asgripour, M. and Amiri, E, 2012. Comparison of sole and combined nutrient application on yield and biochemical composition of sunflower under water stress. International Journal of applied science and technology, 2 (3) .
Esmail, A. O., Yasin, H. S. and Mahmood, B. J. 2014. Effect of levels of phosphorus and iron on growth, yield and quality of flax,IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7(5), pp. 07–11. doi: 10.9790/2380-0752071
Hafez, S.K., Mubarak, M.H., ElBassiony, M.N. and Hussin, T.H, .2021. Response of some sunflower genotypes to nitrogen fertilizer levels. Sinai Journal of Applied Sciences, 10(1), pp.15-26.
Hama, S. S., Jalal, H. S. and Muhammed, A. H. 2015. Response two Varieties of Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L .) to potassium Fertilization in Sulaimani Region,, in the 2nd Conformance of Garmian University. Garmian University, pp. 550–564.
Hamza, M. abd, Hashim, Z. J. and Kazar. R. 2011. Response of two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to foliar spray of prosol,, Karbala University Scientific Journal, pp. 95–104.
Idris, A. E., Basheer, H. G. and Ahmed, B. E. A. M.2016. Impact of Bio-Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Two Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Hybrids at Shambat, Sudan ,, Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 3(4), pp. 332–336. doi: 10.21276/sjavs.2016.3.4.12.
Krul, E. S. 2019. Calculation of Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factors: A Review with a Focus on Soy Protein,, JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 96(4), pp. 339–364. doi: 10.1002/aocs.12196.
Kumar, A. and Nagesh, B. 2019. Foliar application of nanofertilizers in agricultural crops -A review Foliar application of nanofertilizers in agricultural crops – A review, J. Farm Sci., 32(3), pp. 239–249. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Aravinda-Kumar-Baburai.
Mahmood, H. N. 2019. Response of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L .) genotypes to soil moisture stress in semi-aird environment of sulaimani region.. PhD thesis, Institut University of Sulaimani College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences.
Mahmood, H. N. 2021(a). Efficacy of various NPK application methods on the yield of different sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes grown during spring seasons,,applied ecology and environmental reserch 19(1):491-505., 19(1), pp. 491–505. doi: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1901_491505.
Mahmood, H., Towfiq, S. and Rashid, K., 2019. The sensitivity of different growth stages of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under deficit irrigation. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 17(4), pp.7605-7623.
Mahmood, H.N., 2021 (b). Foliar and Fertigation Application of NPK Fertilizers Impact on Growth, Seed Yield and Yield Components of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences, 21(2), pp.84-98.
Muhammad, K.K. and Mahmood, B.J., 2018. Impact of sulfur foliar fertilization on some growth characteristics, yield and quality of two flax cultivars. Journal of Kirkuk University for Agricultural Sciences.
Muzzamil. H.S., Fateh.C.O., Kaleem. F.M., and Gandahi. W. 2009. Effect of NPK micronutrients and placement on the Growth and Yield of Sunflower Sahard J of Agric Vol 25.No1.
Petraru, A., Ursachi, F. and Amariei, S., 2021. Nutritional Characteristics Assessment of Sunflower Seeds, Oil and Cake. Perspective of Using Sunflower Oilcakes as a Functional Ingredient. Plants, 10(11), p.2487.
Salama, H.M., 2012. Effects of silver nanoparticles in some crop plants, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Int Res J Biotechnol, 3(10), pp.190-197.
Schneiter, A.A. AND Milier,J.F., 1981.Description of sunflower growth stages 1. Crop Science, 21(6), pp.901-903
Sumon, M.M., Ekonomi, I., Surabaya, P. and Hossain, A., 2020. Comparative Study on Physicochemical Composition of Different Genotypes of Sunflower Seed and Mineral Profile of Oil Cake. Agriculturists, 18, pp.83-93.
Zeidan, M. S., Mohamed, M. F., & Hamouda, H. A. (2010). Effect of foliar fertilization of Fe, Mn and Zn on wheat yield and quality in low sandy soils fertility. World J. Agric. Sci, 6(6), 696-699.
Copyright (c) 2022 Kazhya Abdalrazaq Bapir, Bahar Jalal Mahmood
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.