Association between Vitamin D3 deficiency and Oxidative stress in Non-Communicable Diseases


  • Ahmed Mohammad ZaKi Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Science, Knowledge University,Kirkuk Road, 44001 Erbil, Iraq.
  • Jian Lateif hussein Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Nahla A.A. Abad Aljabar Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Science, Knowledge University,Kirkuk Road, 44001 Erbil, Iraq.
  • Salih Omer Haji Department of Physics, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Vitamin D3 deficiency, MDA, Oxidative stress, NCDs


A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a disease that is not transmissible directly from one person to another. NCDs in this study include most heart diseases and diabetes. Vitamin D3 (Vit. D3) deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide, and it raises the risk of the non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also the relation to increasing oxidative stress in NCDs patients. The present study is focusing on the relationship between Vit. D3 deficiency and oxidative stress in NCDs patients through determination of Vit. D3, malondialdehyde (MDA) - a biomarker of oxidative stress, lipid profile test and thyroid hormone levels in fasting samples from 120 people (controls and patients). The different groups showed highly significant differences in Vit.D3, and between the MDA levels. Also, significant differences were found in the in the level of Vit. D3, MDA and triglyceride (TG) within the groups in comparison to control subjects. However, no significant differences were found between control subjects and patients in the levels TSH, T3, T4, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL. Gender of patients also contributed to the variation and highly significant differences were observed between the female and male in the level of Vit.D3 (P<0.0001) and female subjects were found to be deficient of Vit.D3 when compared with control (20.71±1.471) and (34.54±1.336) respectively. On other hand, gender had no effect on the variation in MDA levels and no significant differences were present between the female and male subjects. The present study, suggests that, Vit.D3 deficiency may not play a very important role in the increased oxidative stress status as seen in NCDs patients.


AlQuaiz, A.M., Kazi, A., Fouda, M. et al. (2018). Age and gender differences in the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency. Arch Osteoporos 13, 49.

Bhat, M., & Ismail, A. (2015). Vitamin D treatment protects against and reverses oxidative stress induced muscle proteolysis. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 152, 171–179.

Bonadiman, Cecília Silva Costa; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen; Melo, Ana Paula Souto (2017). A carga dos transtornos mentais e decorrentes do uso de substâncias psicoativas no Brasil: Estudo de Carga Global de Doença, 1990 e 2015. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, 20(suppl 1), 191–204.

Breitenbach, M., & Eckl, P. (2015). Introduction to Oxidative Stress in Biomedical and Biological Research. Biomolecules, 5(2), 1169–1177.

Câmara AB, Brandão IA(2021). The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and oxidative stress can be independent of age and gender. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Jan;91(1-2):108-123.

Camps, J., García-Heredia, A. (2014). Introduction: Oxidation and Inflammation, A Molecular Link Between Non-Communicable Diseases. In: Camps, J. (eds) Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Non-communicable Diseases - Molecular Mechanisms and Perspectives in Therapeutics. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 824. Springer, Cham.

Christakos, S., Dhawan, P., Verstuyf, A., Verlinden, L., & Carmeliet, G. (2016). Vitamin D: Metabolism, Molecular Mechanism of Action, and Pleiotropic Effects. Physiological reviews, 96(1), 365–408.

D'Amelio P. (2021). Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Aging Men. The world journal of men's health, 39(2), 291–301.

Dawson-Hughes, B., Heaney, R. P., Holick, M. F., Lips, P., Meunier, P. J., & Vieth, R. (2005). Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 16(7), 713–716.

Frei, B. (1994). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant vitamins: Mechanisms of action., 97(3-supp-S1), 5S-13S..

Gulseth, H. L., Gjelstad, I. M., Birkeland, K. I., & Drevon, C. A. (2013). Vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome. Current vascular pharmacology, 11(6), 968–984.

Hilger, J., Friedel, A., Herr, R., Rausch, T., Roos, F., Wahl, D. A., Pierroz, D. D., Weber, P., & Hoffmann, K. (2014). A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide. The British journal of nutrition, 111(1), 23–45.

Leser, M., Chapman, J. R., Khine, M., Pegan, J., Law, M., Makkaoui, M. E., Ueberheide, B. M., & Brenowitz, M. (2019). Chemical Generation of Hydroxyl Radical for Oxidative 'Footprinting'. Protein and peptide letters, 26(1), 61–69.

Maktabi, M., Jamilian, M., & Asemi, Z. (2018). Magnesium-Zinc-Calcium-Vitamin D Co-supplementation Improves Hormonal Profiles, Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Biological trace element research, 182(1), 21–28.

Mona B., Zipora M., Alexander B., Ze'ev K., Manfred G., Menahem F.,Shmuel S. et al.,(1999)., Serum malondialdehyde and prevalent cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis, Kidney International,Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 1078-1083.

Rani V, Deep G, Singh RK, Palle K, Yadav UC. (2016). Oxidative stress and metabolic disorders: Pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. Life Sci. Mar 1;148:183-93.

Ricca, C., Aillon, A., Bergandi, L., Alotto, D., Castagnoli, C., & Silvagno, F. (2018). Vitamin D Receptor Is Necessary for Mitochondrial Function and Cell Health. International journal of molecular sciences, 19(6), 1672.

Schöttker, B., Haug, U., Schomburg, L., Köhrle, J., Perna, L., Müller, H., Holleczek, B., & Brenner, H. (2013). Strong associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort study. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 97(4), 782–793.





Biology and Medical Researches