Yield and Growth Indices of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by Inter and Intra Row Spacing
Keywords:Maize, Growth Indices, Crop growth rate, Relative growth rate, Inter row spacing, Intra row spacing
To study the yield and physiological growth indices of hybrid maize a field experiment was conducted during the main cropping season under rain-fed conditions in 2020 and 2021 at Ankawa Research Center and Qushtapa zones of northern Iraq to determine the effects of inter and intra row spacing on growth, yield components, and yield of hybrid maize. One maize hybrid (CASH F1) was used in the experiment.The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a simple factorial arrangement with three replications. Treatments were three inter-row spacing’s of (55 cm, 65 cm and 75 cm) with three intra row spacing's of (25 cm, 30 cm and 35 cm) replicated thrice making a total of nine plots. At 15-day intervals, data on dry matter partitioning, different growth rate parameters, and dry matter production of various plant sections were obtained.The results indicated significant variations in almost all of the yield and growth indices. Plant and ear height were significantly affected by the main effect of inter, intra row spacing and location.Inter and intra row spacing (55 cm × 25 cm) and (75 cm × 30 cm) combination gave taller ear and plant height. Accordingly,crop growth rate CGR and relative growth rate RGR gave the highest mean value at the nteraction combinations inter and intra row spacing (75 cm × 30 cm) and (75 cm × 35 cm).
Aliabadi FH, Lebaschi MH, Shiranirad AH, Valadabadi SAR, Hamidi A, Daneshian J. 2008. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus hoi), different levels of phosphorus and drought stress on physiological growth indices of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). 5th International Crop Sci. Congress & Exhibition. Korea. p. 231.
Aliu S, Fetahu S, Rozman L. 2010. Variation of physiological traits and yield components of some maize hybrid (Zea mays L.) in agroecological conditions of Kosovo. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica. 95(1): 35-41.
Andrade, F.H., Calvino, P., Cirilo, A. and Barbieri, P. 2002. Yield responses to narrow rows depend on increased radiation interception. Agronomy Journal, 94(5), pp.975-980.
Anjorin, F.B. and Ogunniyan, D.J. 2014. Comparison of Growth and Yield Components of Five Quality Protein Maize Varieties. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 4, 1-5
Azam, S., Ali, M., Amin, M., Bibi, S. and Arif, M. 2007. Effect of Plant Population on Maize Hybrids. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 2, 14.
Bavec, F. and Bavec, M. 2002. Effects of plant population on leaf area index, cob characteristics and grain yield of early maturing maize cultivars (FAO 100–400). European Journal of Agronomy, 16(2), pp.151-159.
Debelle, T., Bogale, T., Negassa, W., Workayehu, T., Liben, M., Mesfin, T., Mekonnen, B. and Mazengia, W. 2002. A review of fertilizer management research on maize in Ethiopia. Mandefro Nigussie, D. Tanner, and S. Twumasi-Afriyie (Eds.), pp.46-54.
Duncan, D.B. 1975. T tests and intervals for comparisons suggested by the data. Biometrics, pp.339-359.
Hodges, T. 1991. Temperature and water stress effects on phenology. Predicting crop phenology, pp.7-13.
Hokmalipour S, Darbandi MH. 2011. Physiological growth indices in corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels. World Applied Sci. J. 15(12): 1800-1805.
Islam, M.T., Islam, A.S. and Uddin, M.S. 2019. Physiological growth indices of maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes in Sylhet. bioRxiv, p.518993.
Karasu, A. 2012. Effect of Nitrogen Levels on Grain Yield and Some Attributes of Some Hybrid Maize Cultivars. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 18, 42-48.
Kebede, M.B. 2019. Effect of inter and intra row spacing on growth, yield components and yield of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) varieties at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 10(9), pp.1548-1564.
Limpinuntana V, Sitthaphanit S, Toomsan B, Panchaban S, Bell RW. 2010. Growth and yield responses in maize to split and delayed fertilizer applications on sandy soils under high rainfall regimes. Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.). 44: 991-1003.
Oktem, A. and Oktem, A.G. 2005. Effect of Different Intra Row Spaces to Forage Value of Three Silage Corn (Zea mays L. indentata) Genotypes. III. In National Animal Nutrition Congress in Turkey (pp. 7-10). September, 523–527, Adana. 2005.
Plensicar, M. and Kustori, R. 2005. Corn yield and water use as influenced by irrigation level, N-rate and planting populations. Trans. Kansan Acad. Science, 53(4), pp.121-7.
Russelle, M.P., Wilhelm, W., Olson, R.A. and Power, J.F. 1984. Growth analysis based on degree days. Publications from USDA-ARS/UNL Faculty, p.123.
Sangoi, L. 2001. Understanding plant density effects on maize growth and development: an important issue to maximize grain yield. Ciência rural, 31(1), pp.159-168.
Sangoi, L., Gracietti, M.A., Rampazzo, C. and Bianchetti, P. 2002. Response of Brazilian maize hybrids from different eras to changes in plant density. Field Crops Research, 79(1), pp.39-51.
Sharratt, B.S. and McWilliams, D.A. 2005. Microclimatic and rooting characteristics of narrow‐row versus conventional‐row corn. Agronomy Journal, 97(4), pp.1129-1135.
Sprague, G.F. and Dudley, J.W. 1988. Corn and corn improvement (Vol. 18). Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy. P. 639-686.
Stanger, T.F. and Lauer, J.G. 2007. Corn stalk response to plant population and the Bt–European corn borer trait. Agronomy Journal, 99(3), pp.657-664.
Vega, C.R.C., Sadras, V.O., Andrade, F.H. and Uhart, S.A. 2000. Reproductive allometry in soybean, maize and sunflower. Annals of Botany, 85(4), pp.461-468.
Warren Wilson, J. 1981. Analysis of growth, photosynthesis and light interception for single plants and stands. Ann. Bot; 8, 507-12.
Copyright (c) 2022 Alan Khasro Jawhar, Aryan S. A. Dizayee
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.