Foliar application Effect of Salicylic Acid and Drought Stress on Growth and Yield of Mung bean (Vigna radiata )


  • Bandizhin Sabr Hasan Department of Field Crops, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Saman Abad Rasul Department of Field Crops, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Vigna radiate; Growth; Drought; Salicylic acid.


This study was conducted to investigate the mitigation of drought stress by foliar application of salicylic acid in mung bean (Vigna radita). Treatments comprised of three drought stress which are  control treatment without drought stress , drought stress at %50 flowering stage  and drought stress at %50 pod formation stages and foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) in three concentrations which are 50 ppm, 100ppm,150 ppm at two times, first spray after 30 days second spray after 40 days of sowing. Irrigation missing at flowering stage, affected less the growth and yield as compared with irrigation missing at both flowering and pod formation stage. The results showed that most of treatments were affected significantly on yield and yield components, the data represented highest values of control treatments (number of pod, weight 100 seeds, biological yield, harvest index)    (19.88 pod.-1, 5.21 g, 9, 28 ton.ha-1, 7.13%) respectively, and the value of the same traits reduced in drought at %50 flowering stage to   (18.71 pod.-1, 4.58 g, 8.43ton.ha-1, 4.44%) respectively. Also, the results indicated that the higher concentrations (150 ppm) of salicylic acid caused significant increase in value of (seed yield, weight 100 seeds, and harvest index). Although water deficit stress has hampered the yield and yield components of mungbean .Exogenous application of salicylic acid mitigate the adverse effects of drought stress significantly.


Ahmad, A., Selim, M.M., Alderfasi, A.A. and Afzal, M., 2015. Effect of drought stress on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) under arid climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia. Ecosystems and Sustainable Development, 192, pp.185-193.

Alderfasi, A.A., Alzarqaa, A.A., AL-Yahya, F.A., Roushdy, S.S., Dawabah, A.A. and Alhammad, B.A., 2017. Effect of combined biotic and abiotic stress on some physiological aspects and antioxidant enzymatic activity in mung bean (Vigna radiate L.). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(9), pp.700-705.

Ali, E.A. and Mahmoud, A.M., 2013. Effect of foliar spray by different salicylic acid and zinc concentrations on seed yield and yield components of mung bean in sandy soil. Asian J. Crop Sci, 5(1), pp.33-40.

Allahmoradi, P., Ghobadi, M., Taherabadi, S. and Taherabadi, S., 2011. Physiological Aspects of Mung bean in Response to Drought Stress. IPCBEE vol. 9 (2011)©. IACSIT Press, Singapoore Int. Conf. Food Eng. Biotechnol.

Ashraf, M., Akram, N.A., Arteca, R.N. and Foolad, M.R., 2010. The physiological, biochemical and molecular roles of brassinosteroids and salicylic acid in plant processes and salt tolerance. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 29(3), pp.162-190.

Avramova, V., AbdElgawad, H., Zhang, Z., Fotschki, B., Casadevall, R., Vergauwen, L., Knapen, D., Taleisnik, E., Guisez, Y., Asard, H. and Beemster, G.T., 2015. Drought induces distinct growth response, protection, and recovery mechanisms in the maize leaf growth zone. Plant physiology, 169(2), pp.1382-1396.

Azooz, M.M. and Youssef, M.M., 2010. Evaluation of heat shock and salicylic acid treatments as inducers of drought stress tolerance in Hassawi wheat. American Journal of Plant Physiology, 5(2), pp.56-70.

Barkosky, R.R. and Einhellig, F.A., 1993. Effects of salicylic acid on plant-water relationships. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19(2), pp.237-247.

Baroowa, B. and Gogoi, N., 2016. Morpho-physiological and Yield responses of Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) and Green gram (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes under Drought at different Growth stages. Research Journal of Recent Sciences E-ISSN, 2277, p.2502.

Bideshki, A. and Arvin, M.J., 2010. Effect of salicylic acid (SA) and drought stress on growth, bulb yield and allicin content of garlic (Allium sativum) in field. Plant Ecophysiology, 2(2), pp.73-81.


Chaves, M.M., Flexas, J. and Pinheiro, C., 2009. Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Annals of botany, 103(4), pp.551-560.

Chaves, M.M., Maroco, J.P. and Pereira, J.S., 2003. Understanding plant responses to drought—from genes to the whole plant. Functional plant biology, 30(3), pp.239-264.

Debaeke, P. and Aboudrare, A., 2004. Adaptation of crop management to water-limited environments. European Journal of Agronomy, 21(4), pp.433-446.

Dutta, P. and Bera, A.K., 2008. Screening of mung bean genotypes for drought tolerance. Legume Research-An International Journal, 31(2), pp.145-148.

Ezzo, M., Ebtihal, M., Elhamid, A., Sadak, M.S. and Abdalla, A.M., 2018. Improving drought tolerance of moringa plants by using trehalose foliar treatments. Bioscience Research, 15(4), pp.4203-4214.

Farooq, M., Kobayashi, N., Ito, O., Wahid, A. and Serraj, R., 2010. Broader leaves result in better performance of indica rice under drought stress. Journal of Plant Physiology, 167(13), pp.1066-1075.

Flexas, J., Bota, J., Galmes, J., Medrano, H. and Ribas‐Carbó, M., 2006. Keeping a positive carbon balance under adverse conditions: responses of photosynthesis and respiration to water stress. Physiologia Plantarum, 127(3), pp.343-352.

Gan, Y., Angadi, S.V., Cutforth, H., Potts, D., Angadi, V.V. and McDonald, C.L., 2004. Canola and mustard response to short periods of temperature and water stress at different developmental stages. Canadian journal of plant science, 84(3), pp.697-704.

Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Irfan, M. and Ahmad, A., 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: a review. Environmental and experimental botany, 68(1), pp.14-25.

Jahan, N., Alam, A.S., Mitu, A.S., Habib, M.A. and Rahman, M.S., 2019. Effect of phosphorus on growth and yield of sesame. Research in Agriculture livestock and fisheries, 6(2), pp.245-251.

Khan, M.I.R., Asgher, M. and Khan, N.A., 2014. Alleviation of salt-induced photosynthesis and growth inhibition by salicylic acid involves glycinebetaine and ethylene in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 80, pp.67-74.

Khan, N.A., Syeed, S., Masood, A., Nazar, R. and Iqbal, N., 2010. Application of salicylic acid increases contents of nutrients and antioxidative metabolism in mung bean and alleviates adverse effects of salinity stress. International Journal of Plant Biology, 1(1), p.e1.

Larkunthod, P., Nounjan, N., Siangliw, J.L., Toojinda, T., Sanitchon, J., Jongdee, B. and Theerakulpisut, P., 2018. Physiological responses under drought stress of improved drought-tolerant rice lines and their parents. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 46(2), pp.679-687.

Lawn, R.J., 1985. Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek/Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). Grain Legume Crops., pp.584-623.

Lee, B.R., Jin, Y.L., Avice, J.C., Cliquet, J.B., Ourry, A. and Kim, T.H., 2009. Increased proline loading to phloem and its effects on nitrogen uptake and assimilation in water‐stressed white clover (Trifolium repens). New Phytologist, 182(3), pp.654-663.

Liu, F., Andersen, M.N. and Jensen, C.R., 2003. Loss of pod set caused by drought stress is associated with water status and ABA content of reproductive structures in soybean. Functional Plant Biology, 30(3), pp.271-280.

MASOUD, S.M., 2007. The effects of water deficit during growth stages of canola (Brassica napus L.).

Miura, K. and Tada, Y., 2014. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid. Frontiers in plant science, 5, p.4.

MM/ Yordanov, I., Velikova, V. and Tsonev, T., 2000. Plant responses to drought, acclimation, and stress tolerance. Photosynthetica, 38(2), pp.171-186.

Mohammed, L.D. and Amin, S.M.A.M., 2019. Response of some wheat cultivars to plot orientation and foliar boron levels. Kurdistan Journal of Applied Research, 4(2), pp.1-14.

Mohi-Ud-Din, M., Talukder, D., Rohman, M., Ahmed, J.U., Jagadish, S.V., Islam, T. and Hasanuzzaman, M., 2021. Exogenous Application of Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Mitigates Drought-Induced Oxidative Damages in French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants, 10(10), p.2066.

Moosavi, S.G., 2012. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize. Pak. J. Bot, 44(4), pp.1351-1355.

Nagasubramaniam, A., Pathmanabhan, G. and Mallika, V., 2007. Studies on improving production potential of baby corn with foliar spray of plant growth regulators. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol, 21, pp.154-157.

Nair, R.M., Schafleitner, R., Kenyon, L., Srinivasan, R., Easdown, W., Ebert, A.W. and Hanson, P., 2012. Genetic improvement of mung bean (No. RESEARCH).

Noreen, S., Ashraf, M., Hussain, M. and Jamil, A., 2009. Exogenous application of salicylic acid enhances antioxidative capacity in salt stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Pak. J. Bot, 41(1), pp.473-479.

Orabi, S.A., Salman, S.R. and Shalaby, M.A., 2010. Increasing resistance to oxidative damage in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants by exogenous application of salicylic acid and paclobutrazol. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(3), pp.252-259.

Rafiei, S.M. and Asgharipur, M.R., 2009. Yield reaction and morphological characteristics of some mung bean genotypes to drought stress. J Modern Agr Knowledge, 5(15), pp.67-76.

Ranawake, A.L., Dahanayaka, N., Amarasingha, U.G.S., Rodrigo, W.D.R.J. and Rodrigo, U.T.D., 2011. Effect of water stress on growth and yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L). Tropical agricultural research and extension, 14(4), pp.76-79.

Rasul, S.A. and Ali, K.A., 2020. Effect of Radish Aqueous Extract on Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat, Wild Oat and Wild barley. Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research, 10(S2).

Ratnasekera, D.P. and Subhashi, A.P.T., 2015. Morpho-physiological response of selected Sri Lankan mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes to drought Stress. J AgriSearch, 2, pp.62-66.

Robertson, M.J., Fukai, S. and Peoples, M.B., 2004. The effect of timing and severity of water deficit on growth, development, yield accumulation and nitrogen fixation of mung bean. Field Crops Research, 86(1), pp.67-80.

SABA ANWAR, M.I., RAZA, S.H. and IQBAL, N., 2013. Efficacy of seed preconditioning with salicylic and ascorbic acid in increasing vigor of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling. Pak. J. Bot, 45(1), pp.157-162.

Sadak, M.S., Abdalla, A.M., Abd Elhamid, E.M. and Ezzo, M.I., 2020. Role of melatonin in improving growth, yield quantity and quality of Moringa oleifera L. plant under drought stress. Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 44(1), pp.1-13.

Salehi, S., Khajehzadeh, A. and Khorsandi, F., 2011. Growth of tomato as affected by foliar application of salicylic acid and salinity. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci, 11(4), pp.564-567.

Sangakkara, U.R., Frehner, M. and Nösberger, J., 2001. Influence of soil moisture and fertilizer potassium on the vegetative growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 186(2), pp.73-81.

Singh, B. and Usha, K., 2003. Salicylic acid induced physiological and biochemical changes in wheat seedlings under water stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 39(2), pp.137-141.

Srivalli B, Chinnusamy V, Chopra RK (2003).Antioxidant defense in response to abiotic stresses in plants. J. Plant Biol. 30:121-139.

Szegletes, Z.S., Erdei, L., Tari, I. and Cseuz, L., 2000. Accumulation of osmoprotectants in wheat cultivars of different drought tolerance. Cereal Research Communications, 28(4), pp.403-410.

Tayyab, N., Naz, R., Yasmin, H., Nosheen, A., Keyani, R., Sajjad, M., Hassan, M.N. and Roberts, T.H., 2020. Combined seed and foliar pre-treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid mitigate drought-induced stress in maize. PLoS One, 15(5), p.e0232269.

Thirunavukkarasu, N., Sharma, R., Singh, N., Shiriga, K., Mohan, S., Mittal, S., Mittal, S., Mallikarjuna, M.G., Rao, A.R., Dash, P.K. and Hossain, F., 2017. Genomewide expression and functional interactions of genes under drought stress in maize. International journal of genomics, 2017.

Uddin, M.N., Bakr, M.A., Islam, M.R., Hossain, M.I. and Hossain, A., 2013. Bioefficacy of plant extracts to control Cercospora leaf spot of mung bean (Vigna radiata). International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology (IJARIT), 3(2355-2020-1524), pp.60-65.

Zare, M., Dehghani, B., Alizadeh, O. and Azarpanah, A., 2013. The evaluation of various agronomic traits of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) genotypes under drought stress and non-stress conditions. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences, 2(19), pp.764-770.





Agricultural and Environmental Researches