Interactive Effect of Irrigation Skipping and Salicylic Acid on Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)


  • Shorsh Hussein Bapir Department of Field Crops, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Saber Wasman Hamad Department of Field Crops, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Drought stress; Deficit irrigation; Salicylic acid; Sunflower yield


    This experiment was conducted on NS Leviathan hybrids during the summer season under the semiarid region. It was designed as a split plot factorial arrangement using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the skipping irrigating effect I1, I2, and I3 with salicylic acid applied S1 and non-applied S0 on the yield at three growth stages (vegetative, flowering, and achene-forming stages), and compared to the effects of full irrigation I4. Complete irrigation with salicylic acid applied resulted in the best production, while the lowest yield was recorded by skipping irrigation without salicylic acid application at the flowering stage. The treatments without salicylic acid application were found to be the most effective in conditions of low watering. Moreover, there was a failure in flowering stage and increasing yield when watering was missed, compared to the vegetative and achene stages. Consequently, it is concluded that avoiding limiting irrigation during the flowering stages can lead to have a better seed production.


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