Heavy metals compositions in springs and streams from Shaqlawa district, Erbil Province, Kurdistan region of Iraq.


  • Janan Jabbar Toma Environmental Sciences and Health Department, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region- Iraq
  • Farhad Hassan Aziz Environmental Sciences and Health Department, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region- Iraq




Heavy; Metals; Springs; Streams; Shaqlawa; Erbil


This study was conducted to determine some heavy metals concentration (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Al, Zn, Cu and Pb) in 18 springs and streams from Shaqlawa district, Erbil governorate from September-2019 till August-2020. The results indicated that higher value of Fe was 660.0 µg/L and 450.0 µg/L recorded in October-2019 in site 17 (Azarian spring) and site 8 (along stream). Mn concentration value varied between 1.0-39.0 µg/L in some springs and streams sites. While, Ni and Cr values was ranged between 7.0--47.0 µg/L and 1.8-24.3 µg/L respectively. The Cd, Al and Zn concentrations were ranged between 2.0-6.50 µg/L, 1070-3380 µg/L and 10-320 µg/L respectively. Finally, Cu and Pb concentration was never exceeded 67.8 µg/L and 50.0 µg/L in site 2 (Piawan spring) and site 16 (Benwan spring) during July-2020 respectively. According to world Health Organization (WHO) all heavy metals in studied sites were within allowable level. Except concentrations of Al in all sites, Ni in many sites and Fe only in site 17(Azarian spring) was above the permissible level for drinking purposes. Relying on the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) the results was varied between 65.66 to 87.75 which mean that all the studied sites lower than 100 which considered as critical number for drinking water purposes. This means all springs and streams sites in this investigation were not polluted by the heavy metals. But according to single factor pollution index of Fe,Mn, Cr, Cd,  Zn, Cu and Pb was less <1  means uncontaminated while, pollution index for Al was > 3 and Ni more than one in most sites which polluted.


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