A comparison between the effects of degraded and non-degraded organic matters on the suppression of chickpea fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris


  • Kamalaldeen M. Fatah Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences,Salahaddin University-Erbil.
  • Majid H. Mustafa Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences,Salahaddin University-Erbil.
  • Qasim A. Marzani Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil




Fusarium, Chickpea, Wilt, Compost, Dodonea, Eucalyptus, Neem, Chickpea Wilt, Compost, Plant residue, Disease control.


     A field study was conducted in Girdarasha research station, belongs to the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences (CAES), Salahaddin University, Erbil Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The objective was to investigate the effects of adding plant materials on the suppression of chickpea fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Two plant residues, fresh (non-degraded) and composted (degraded) from three plant sources of leaves were added to the soil.  Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Dodonea (Dodonaea viscosa), and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were used as plant sources. Results showed the domination of composted matters over non-composted plant materials in their effects on the measured parameters (disease incidence, disease severity, plant height, and seed yield). Composted Eucalyptus leaves surpassed other composted residues in decreasing the disease severity. Nevertheless, the composted Dodonea leaves had the greatest effect in increasing both yield and plant height. The growth rate was an exception because it was not affected by the addition of these plant matters. 


ABBO, S., SHTIENBERG, D., LICHTENZVEIG, J., LEV‐YADUN, S. & GOPHER, A. 2003. The chickpea, summer cropping, and a new model for pulse domestication in the ancient Near East. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 78, 435-448.

AHLAWAT, I., GANGAIAH, B. & ZAHID, M. A. 2007. Nutrient management in chickpea. Chickpea breeding and management, 213-232.

BENDRE, N. & BARHATE, B. 1998. A souvenir on Disease Management in Chickpea. MPKV, Rahuri during 10th Dec.

CHATURVEDI, S., JHA, S., SINGH, N., GAUR, P. & VARSHNEY, R. 2018. Technological And Policy Intervention For Increasing Chickpea Production In India. Pulse India, 8, 7-12.

DAR, W., GANIE, S., BHAT, J. A., MIR, G. H., LAWRENCE, R., NARAYAN, S. & SINGH, P. K. 2013. Comparative efficacy of Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum f sp. ciceris causing wilt of chickpea. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 7, 5731-5736.

GAHUKAR, R. 2011. Use of neem and plant-based biopesticides in floriculture: current challenges and perspectives–a review. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 86, 203-209.

HA, M. T. & HUANG, J.-W. 2007. Control of Fusarium wilt of asparagus bean by organic soil amendment and microorganisms. Plant Pathol. Bull, 16, 169-180.

HOITINK, H., STONE, A. & HAN, D. 1997. Suppression of plant diseases by composts. HortScience, 32, 184-187.

ISLAM, M. N., NIZAM, S. & VERMA, P. K. 2012. A highly efficient Agrobacterium mediated transformation system for chickpea wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri using DsRed-Express to follow root colonisation. Microbiological research, 167, 332-338.

KAI, H., UEDA, T. & SAKAGUCHI, M. 1990. Antimicrobial activity of bark-compost extracts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 22, 983-986.

KANOUNI, H. 2001. The yielding ability and adaptability of chickpea cultivars under rainfed conditions of Kurdistan. Seed and Plant Improvment Journal, 17, 1-11.

MADHUMITA, P., SOBITA, S. & NEELAM 2014. Effect of organic soil amendment and soil solarization on wilt of chickpea. International Journal of Botany and Research (IJBR), 4, 61-65.

MARZANI, Q. A. 2003. Epiphytotic and control of ascochyta blight of chickpea caused by Ascochyta rabiei (pass.) Labr. in Erbil Province. Master, Salahaddin University-Erbil.

MARZANI, Q. A., FATAH, K. M. & MUSTAFA, M. H. J. S. J. O. U. O. Z. 2017. Field efficacy of the commercial formulation of the antagonistic Trichoderma harzianum on chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum. 5, 64-69.

MEKI, S., AHMED, S. & SAKHUJA, P. 2011. Control of chickpea wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris) using Trichoderma spp. in Ethiopia. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 44, 432-440.

MISRA, R., ROY, R. & HIRAOKA, H. 2016. On-farm composting methods. Rome, Italy: UN-FAO.

NAUTIYAL, C. S., SRIVASTAVA, S., MISHRA, S., ASIF, M. H., CHAUHAN, P. S., SINGH, P. C. & NATH, P. 2013. Reduced cell wall degradation plays a role in cow dung-mediated management of wilt complex disease of chickpea. Biology and fertility of soils, 49, 881-891.

NAYEEM-SHAH, M., GAJALAKSHMI, S. & ABBASI, S. 2015. Direct, rapid and sustainable vermicomposting of the leaf litter of neem (Azadirachta indica). Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 175, 792-801.

NIKAM, P., JAGTAP, G. & SONTAKKE, P. 2007. Management of chickpea wilt caused byFusarium oxysporium f. sp. ciceri. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2, 692-697.

ORITSEJAFOR, J. & ADENIJI, M. 1990. Influence of host and non-host rhizospheres and organic amendments on survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis. Mycological Research, 94, 57-63.

SALAMI, P. & AHMADI, H. 2010. Energy inputs and outputs in a chickpea production system in Kurdistan, Iran. African Crop Science Journal, 18.

SHAFIQUE, S., ASIF, M. & SHAFIQUE, S. J. P. J. B. 2015. Management of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici by leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora. 47, 1177-1182.

SUN, S. & HUANG, J. 1985. Formulated soil amendment for controlling Fusarium wilt and other soilborne diseases. Plant Disease, 69, 917-920.

TOWNSEND, G. J. P. D. R. 1943. Methods for estimating losses caused by diseases in fungicide experiments. 27, 340-343.

XIONG, W., GUO, S., JOUSSET, A., ZHAO, Q., WU, H., LI, R., KOWALCHUK, G. A., SHEN, Q. J. S. B. & BIOCHEMISTRY 2017. Bio-fertilizer application induces soil suppressiveness against Fusarium wilt disease by reshaping the soil microbiome. 114, 238-247.

ZHANG, W., DICK, W. & HOITINK, H. 1996. Compost-induced systemic acquired resistance in cucumber to Pythium root rot and anthracnose. Phytopathology, 86, 1066-1070.

ZMORA-NAHUM, S., HADAR, Y. & CHEN, Y. 2007. Physico-chemical properties of commercial composts varying in their source materials and country of origin. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39, 1263-1276.





Agricultural and Environmental Researches