ECR-IoT: Energy-efficient and cluster-based routing method for WSN-based IoT using Harris hawk’s and whale optimization algorithms


  • Khalid A. Asaad Technical College of Informatics, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Iraq.
  • Arkan A Saffer Department of Information Technology, Kalar Technical College, Garmian Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Sarkawt H. Abdulqadir Department of Information Technology, Kalar Technical College, Garmian Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Soran A. Pasha Department of Information Technology, Kalar Technical College, Garmian Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Internet of things, WSNs, Routing, Clustering, Harris hawk optimization algorithm, Whale optimization algorithm


  Internet of things (IoT) applications from home applications to military applications have been expanding day by day. Energy efficient routing schemes are vital for resource constraint wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and IoT. Clustering based routing scheme is one of the basic methods to extend the lifetime of WSN­-based IoT. On the other hand, clustering is NP-hard problem and metaheuristic algorithms are suitable for clustering. In this paper, a new energy-efficient routing scheme is presented for IoT using two metaheuristic algorithms Harris hawk’s optimization (HHO) and whale optimization algorithm (WOA). The selection of the cluster header (CH) is based on the WOA using various parameters such as residual energy of nodes, distance to neighbors, distance to sink. After clustering phase, an energy efficient routing scheme was proposed using the HHO algorithm. The simulation results in MATLAB environment justifies that the proposed protocol improves network life by 10%, average energy consumption by 15%, packet delivery rate (PDR) by 12%, throughput by 11% and number of alive nodes by 15%.


AGARWAL, V., TAPASWI, S. & CHANAK, P. 2022. Intelligent fault-tolerance data routing scheme for IoT-enabled WSNs. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 9, 16332-16342.

ALTOWAIJRI, S. M. 2022. Efficient next-hop selection in multi-hop routing for IoT enabled wireless sensor networks. Future Internet, 14, 35.

ARAFAT, M. Y., PAN, S. & BAK, E. 2023. Distributed energy-efficient clustering and routing for wearable IoT enabled wireless body area networks. IEEE Access, 11, 5047-5061.

DOGRA, R., RANI, S., KAVITA, SHAFI, J., KIM, S. & IJAZ, M. F. 2022. ESEERP: Enhanced smart energy efficient routing protocol for internet of things in wireless sensor nodes. Sensors, 22, 6109.

GHAFFARI, A. 2014. Designing a wireless sensor network for ocean status notification system. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 809-814.

GUPTA, D., WADHWA, S., RANI, S., KHAN, Z. & BOULILA, W. 2023. EEDC: An Energy Efficient Data Communication Scheme Based on New Routing Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks for Future IoT Applications. Sensors, 23, 8839.

GURRAM, G. V., SHARIFF, N. C. & BIRADAR, R. L. 2022. A secure energy aware meta-heuristic routing protocol (SEAMHR) for sustainable IoT-wireless sensor network (WSN). Theoretical Computer Science, 930, 63-76.

HEIDARI, A. A., MIRJALILI, S., FARIS, H., ALJARAH, I., MAFARJA, M. & CHEN, H. 2019. Harris hawks optimization: Algorithm and applications. Future generation computer systems, 97, 849-872.

JAISWAL, K. & ANAND, V. 2022. FAGWO-H: A hybrid method towards fault-tolerant cluster-based routing in wireless sensor network for IoT applications. The Journal of Supercomputing, 78, 11195-11227.

JAZEBI, S. J. & GHAFFARI, A. 2020. RISA: routing scheme for Internet of Things using shuffled frog leaping optimization algorithm. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 11, 4273-4283.

JEEVANANTHAM, S. & REBEKKA, B. 2022. Energy-aware neuro-fuzzy routing model for WSN based-IoT. Telecommunication Systems, 81, 441-459.

KAUR, G. & CHANAK, P. 2022. An Intelligent Fault Tolerant Data Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Network-assisted Industrial Internet of Things. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 19, 5543-5553.

LAHMAR, I., ZAIER, A., YAHIA, M., LLORET, J. & BOUALLEGUE, R. 2024. Optimal data transmission for decentralized IoT and WSN based on Type-2 Fuzzy Harris Hawks Optimization. Internet of Things, 25, 101028.

LENKA, R. K., KOLHAR, M., MOHAPATRA, H., AL-TURJMAN, F. & ALTRJMAN, C. 2022. Cluster-based routing protocol with static hub (CRPSH) for WSN-assisted IoT networks. Sustainability, 14, 7304.

MEHTA, D. & SAXENA, S. 2020. MCH-EOR: Multi-objective cluster head based energy-aware optimized routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks. Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, 28, 100406.

MIRJALILI, S. & LEWIS, A. 2016. The whale optimization algorithm. Advances in engineering software, 95, 51-67.

MOHAMMADI, R., AKLEYLEK, S. & GHAFFARI, A. 2023. SDN-IoT: SDN-based efficient clustering scheme for IoT using improved Sailfish optimization algorithm. PeerJ Computer Science, 9, e1424.

MOTTAGHINIA, Z. & GHAFFARI, A. 2018. Fuzzy logic based distance and energy-aware routing protocol in delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks. Wireless Personal Communications, 100, 957-976.

MOUSSA, N., KHEMIRI-KALLEL, S. & EL BELRHITI EL ALAOUI, A. 2022. Fog-assisted hierarchical data routing strategy for IoT-enabled WSN: Forest fire detection. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, 15, 2307-2325.

RAJASOUNDARAN, S., PRABU, A., ROUTRAY, S., MALLA, P. P., KUMAR, G. S., MUKHERJEE, A. & QI, Y. 2022. Secure routing with multi-watchdog construction using deep particle convolutional model for IoT based 5G wireless sensor networks. Computer Communications, 187, 71-82.

ROBERTS, M. K. & RAMASAMY, P. 2023. An improved high performance clustering based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks in IoT. Telecommunication Systems, 82, 45-59.

SEFATI, S. S., ABDI, M. & GHAFFARI, A. 2023. QoS-based routing protocol and load balancing in wireless sensor networks using the markov model and the artificial bee colony algorithm. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, 16, 1499-1512.

SEYFOLLAHI, A., MOODI, M. & GHAFFARI, A. 2022. MFO-RPL: A secure RPL-based routing protocol utilizing moth-flame optimizer for the IoT applications. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 82, 103622.

SEYFOLLAHI, A., TAAMI, T. & GHAFFARI, A. 2023. Towards developing a machine learning-metaheuristic-enhanced energy-sensitive routing framework for the internet of things. Microprocessors and Microsystems, 96, 104747.

SHARMA, S. K. & CHAWLA, M. 2024. PRESEP: Cluster Based Metaheuristic Algorithm for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Network Application in Internet of Things. Wireless Personal Communications, 1-21.

SUBRAMANI, N., PERUMAL, S. K., KALLIMANI, J. S., ULAGANATHAN, S., BHARGAVA, S. & MECKANIZI, S. 2022. Controlling energy aware clustering and multihop routing protocol for IoT assisted wireless sensor networks. concurrency and computation: practice and experience, 34, e7106.

TEWARI, P. & TRIPATHI, S. 2023. An energy efficient routing scheme in internet of things enabled WSN: neuro-fuzzy approach. The Journal of Supercomputing, 1-25.

THANGARAMYA, K., KULOTHUNGAN, K., LOGAMBIGAI, R., SELVI, M., GANAPATHY, S. & KANNAN, A. 2019. Energy aware cluster and neuro-fuzzy based routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks in IoT. Computer Networks, 151, 211-223.

VAZHUTHI, P. P. I., PRASANTH, A., MANIKANDAN, S. & SOWNDARYA, K. D. 2023. A hybrid ANFIS reptile optimization algorithm for energy-efficient inter-cluster routing in internet of things-enabled wireless sensor networks. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, 16, 1049-1068.



How to Cite

Khalid A. Asaad, Saffer, A. A., Sarkawt H. Abdulqadir, & Soran A. Pasha. (2024). ECR-IoT: Energy-efficient and cluster-based routing method for WSN-based IoT using Harris hawk’s and whale optimization algorithms. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 36(3), 43–60.



Engineering and Computer Sciences