The Seminal plasma TEX101 protein as a spermatogenesis biomarker in male infertility.


  • Ahmed A Al-Naqshbandi Department of Biology, College of Education, Scientific Department, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Kalthum A Maulood Department of Biology, College of Education, Scientific Department, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Suhaila N Darogha Department of Biology, College of Education, Scientific Department, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



Male infertility; TEX101; Sperm concentration; Spermatid


  Male infertility may be results from reduced sperm production, or oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Testis-expressed 101 (TEX101) is a glycoprotein that is associated with male fertility, and the disruption of TEX101 results in abnormal semen parameters and sperm function. A case-control study was done to measure seminal plasma TEX101 in 184 volunteers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Significant differences in the mean of TEX101 values were estimated between fertile men (9.64 ng/ml, N= 40), normozoospermic infertile men (8.57 ng/ml, N= 28), and infertile men with oligospermia (5.35 ng/ml, N= 76), and azoospermia (3.19 ng/ml, N= 40). Significant differences between the mean of TEX101 values were estimated in azoospermic infertile men according to the presence of spermatids as no-spermatid (0.66 ng/ml, N=12), few spermatids (3.05 ng/ml, N=16), and moderate spermatids (5.88 ng/ml, N=12). In addition, a significant correlation in oligozoospermia infertile men was found between TEX101 with seminogram. Clinical assay for TEX101 has the potential to diagnose male infertility. And as a biomarker for the seminal fluid quality and as a differential diagnosis of non-obstructive azoospermia.


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How to Cite

Al-Naqshbandi, A. A., Maulood, K. . A., & Darogha, S. N. (2024). The Seminal plasma TEX101 protein as a spermatogenesis biomarker in male infertility. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 36(3), 1–6.



Biology, Chemistry and Medical Researches