Management Factors Affecting Nitrogen Content, Cell Wall Thickness and the Fiber Diameter of the Kenaf Fibers (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)
Keywords:Natural fibers; Improving; Industrial applications, Hibiscus cannabinus L., Fertilizer, Fiber Morphology, Fiber Improving.
Two field tests have done in 2013 and 2014 on two kenaf varieties: Fuhong-952 and 4383 at University Putra Malaysia which was to investigate the effect of preharvest factors of nitrogen content in the cell wall of the fibers. Different types and doses of fertilizers were used as preharvest factors, which was potassium as muriate of potash at the rate of (0.0, 100 and 150 kg/ha), was added to the plants in two different growth stages, halve dose at planting day and others' after planting by three weeks. At the second time of application boron and zinc added at (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 0.0, 5.0 kg/ha, of borax and zinc chloride), respectively. Besides that, during the second field test just FH-952 as plant material was selected, other levels of zinc were added which was to display its impact of quality characteristics. The best result of nitrogen content (4.82%) was achieved for FH-952 when potassium was added at the high level, nevertheless 4383 was when potassium, boron and zinc were applied at the rate of (150, 1.0 and 5.0) kg/ha, respectively by (3.33%). Changing of nitrogen content caused to increase cell wall thickness, so the biggest result of the cell wall thickness was recorded again when potassium was added alone at a high level (150) kg/ha, which was by (7.73 μm) of FH-952 variety. K, Z and combined treatments; K×Z, K×B, and K×B×Z were significantly affected fiber diameter. During the second experiment zinc performances caused to achieve tough fibers which was possible for using as biocomposite materials
ALEXOPOULOU, E., PAPATHEOHARI, Y., & KIPRIOTIS, E. 2007. Response of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) growth and yield to nitrogen fertilization. International journal of food, agriculture and environment (Print), 5(2), pp.228-232.
ALEXOPOULOU, E., PAPATHEOHARI, Y., CHRISTOU, M., & MONTI, A. 2013. Origin, description, importance, and cultivation area of kenaf. In Kenaf: A multi-purpose crop for several industrial applications (pp. 1-15). Springer, London.
ARAVIND, P., & PRASAD, M. N. V. 2003. Zinc alleviates cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Ceratophyllum demersum L.: a free floating freshwater macrophyte. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 41(4), pp.391-397.
ARAVIND, P., & PRASAD, M. N. V. 2004. Zinc protects chloroplasts and associated photochemical functions in cadmium exposed Ceratophyllum demersum L., a freshwater macrophyte. Plant Science, 166(5), pp.1321-1327.
ANDREINI, C., BANCI, L., BERTINI, I., & ROSATO, A. 2006. Counting the zinc-proteins encoded in the human genome. Journal of proteome research, 5(1), pp.196-201.
ADAIR, W. S., & SNELL, W. J. 1988. Organization and in vitro assembly of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell wall. Self-assembling architecture, 25-41.
BELL, R. W., & DELL, B. 2008. Micronutrients for sustainable food, feed, fibre and bioenergy production. International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA).
BERARDO, N. 1992. Comparison of alfalfa cultivars at two phenological stages under different environmental conditions. In Proc. of the X International Conference of the EUCARPIA (pp. 67-72).
CHANEY, R. Á. 1993. Zinc phytotoxicity. In Zinc in soils and plants (pp. 135-150). Springer, Dordrecht.
COATES, W. 1996. Kenaf performance in northwestern Argentina. Industrial Crops and Products, 5(3), pp.223-228.
DONOHUE JR, T. M., & OSNA, N. A. 2003. Intracellular proteolytic systems in alcohol-induced tissue injury. Alcohol Research & Health, 27(4), pp.317.
GUPTA, U. C., KENING, W. U., & LIANG, S. 2008. Micronutrients in soils, crops, and livestock. Earth Science Frontiers, 15(5), pp.110-125.
HARDY, D. H., TUCKER, M. R., STOKES, C. E., & TROXLER, S. 2003. Crop fertilization based on North Carolina soil tests. In North Carolina Dept.
HÄNSCH, R., & MENDEL, R. R. 2009. Physiological functions of mineral micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mo, B, Cl). Current opinion in plant biology, 12(3), pp.259-266.
HOSSAIN, M. D., HANAFI, M. M., JOL, H., & JAMAL, T. 2011. Dry matter and nutrient partitioning of kenaf ('Hibiscus cannabinus' L.) varieties grown on sandy bris soil. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(6), pp.654-659.
IGRAS, J., & DANYTE, V. 2007. Potassium concentration in tissue water as an indicator of crop potassium requirement. In Proceedings of International Conference Plant Nutrition and its prospects. Brno Czech Rep (pp. 47-51).
KHALIL, H. A., YUSRA, A. I., BHAT, A. H., & JAWAID, M. 2010. Cell wall ultrastructure, anatomy, lignin distribution, and chemical composition of Malaysian cultivated kenaf fiber. Industrial Crops and Products, 31(1), pp.113-121.
KIPRIOTIS, E., ALEXOPOULOU, E., PAPATHEOHARI, Y., MOSKOV, G., & GEORGIADIS, S. 2007. Cultivation of kenaf in north-east Greece: PartII-Effect of variety and nitrogen on growth and dry yield. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 5, 135.
KÖLELI, N., EKER, S., & CAKMAK, I. 2004. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil. Environmental Pollution, 131(3), pp.453-459.
KONING, R. E. 1994. Basic plant cytology 1.
Liu, F., Li, F., Du, G., and Xiao, F. 2013. Balanced fertilization improves fiber yield and quality of winter flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).
LUBIN, M., & ENNIS, H. L. 1964. On the role of intracellular potassium in protein synthesis. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Specialized Section on Nucleic Acids and Related Subjects, 80(4), pp.614-631.
MARSCHNER, H. 1997. Functions of mineral nutrients, macronutrients. Mineral nutrition of higher plants.
MOHAMED, A., BHARDWAJ, H., HAMAMA, A., & WEBBER III, C. 1995. Chemical composition of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil. Industrial crops and products, 4(3), pp.157-165.
MOSSELLO, A. A., HARUN, J., SHAMSI, S. R. F., RESALATI, H., TAHIR, P. M., RUSHDAN, I., & MOHMAMED, A. Z. 2010. A review of literatures related to kenaf as an alternative for pulpwoods. Agricultural Journal, 5(3), pp.131-138.
MOUSAVI, S. R., GALAVI, M., & REZAEI, M. 2013. Zinc (Zn) importance for crop production—a review. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4(1), pp.64-68.
NISHIMURA, N., IZUMI, A., & KURODA, K. I. 2002. Structural characterization of kenaf lignin: differences among kenaf varieties. Industrial Crops and Products, 15(2), pp.115-122.
NORTON, A. J., BENNETT, S. J., HUGHES, M., DIMMOCK, J. P. R. E., WRIGHT, D., NEWMAN, G., ... & EDWARDS‐JONES, G. 2006. Determining the physical properties of flax fibre for industrial applications: the influence of agronomic practice. Annals of Applied Biology, 149(1), pp.15-25.
PANHWAR, Q. A., RADZIAH, O., KHANIF, Y. M., & NAHER, U. A. 2011. Application of boron and zinc in the tropical soils and its effect on maize ('Zea mays') growth and soil microbial environment. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(12), pp.1649-1654.
PRASAD, R. 2003. Protein-energy malnutrition and fertiliser use in India. Fertiliser News, 48(8), pp.13-26.
QIAO, X., HE, Y., WANG, Z., LI, X., ZHANG, K., & ZENG, H. 2014. Effect of foliar spray of zinc on chloroplast β-carbonic anhydrase expression and enzyme activity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves. Acta physiologiae plantarum, 36(2), pp.263-272.
ROUISON, D., SAIN, M., & COUTURIER, M. 2004. Resin transfer molding of natural fiber reinforced composites: cure simulation. Composites science and technology, 64(5), pp.629-644.
SALIH, R. F., ABDAN, K., & WAYAYOK, A. 2014. Growth responses of two kenaf varieties (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) applied by different levels of potassium, boron and zinc. Journal of Agricultural Science, 6(9), pp.37-45.
SALIH, R.F., 2015. Improve Protein Content in the Cell Wall of the Kenaf Fibers. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Germany.
SCHUMANN, A. W., & SUMNER, M. E. 2004. Formulation of environmentally sound waste mixtures for land application. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 152(1), pp.195-217.
SHIVAY, Y. S., PRASAD, R., SINGH, R. K., & PAL, M. 2015. Relative efficiency of zinc-coated urea and soil and foliar application of zinc sulphate on yield, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and iron biofortification in grains and uptake by basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Agricultural Science, 7(2), pp.161.
SMOOK, G.A., 2002. Handbook for pulp & paper technologists. A. Wilde.
VAN BRUNT, J. M., & SULTENFUSS, J. H. 1998. Better crops with plant food. Potassium: Functions of potassium, 82(3), pp.4-5.
WWW.CROPNUTRITION.COM Potassium in soil.
WEBBER III, C. L. 1993. Crude protein and yield components of six kenaf cultivars as affected by crop maturity. Industrial Crops and Products, 2(1), pp.27-31.
Copyright (c) 2022 Rabar F. Salih, Khalina B. Abdan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.