Factors affecting Bologna process course registration in Architectural Engineering Department-Salahaddin University


  • Salahaddin Yasin Baper Department of Architectur, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq




bologna process, course selection, regression analysis; architectural engineering


Developing the traditional higher educational system towards bologna process is considered as the instruction for reshaping in the higher education system in Kurdistan. This transformation faced crucial difficulties in term of course selection in Kurdistan universities. This study aims to explore thoughts, obstacles and difficulties that face students in term of course selection. Further, it tries to formulate an equation of operative factors that affection course selection in bologna process system. The rationale behind applying bologna process in Kurdistan is related to create common higher education area which intended to increase mobility, and inclusive comparability of programs within similar higher education institutes in the region. More precisely, the intention is to indicate how bologna process course selection have affected what goes on in the classroom by comparing select aspects of studying in both pre-and post-Bologna times at Salahaddin university-college of engineering. The methodology of this study is questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of a random selection of architectural engineering students plus intensive interviews with experts in the field of architectural engineering. Regression analysis is applied to indicate the most operative factors among predictors (course factors, social factors and individual factors). Results specify that these factors have equivalent consequence on course selection and positively affected the students’ academic performance, in other hands the bologna process is one of the effective factors in improving Kurdistan higher education as comprehensive accreditation system.


AL-SAREM, M. 2017. Solving Course Selection Problem by a Combination of Correlation Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE) Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 3536~3551.

ENDERS, J., FILE, J., STENSAKER, B. AND ZIEGELEF, F. 2006. The Extent and Impact of Higher Education Governance Reform Across Europe. Final report to the Directorate-General for Education and Culture of the European Commission, European Commission.

CROSIER, D., L. PURSER AND H. SMIDT 2007. Trends V: Universities Shaping the European Higher Education Area, European University Association, Brussels.

CORBETT, A., AND HENKEL, M. 2013. The Bologna Dynamic: Strengths and Weaknesses of the Europeanisation of Higher Education. European Political Science 12: pp.415-423. https://doi.org/10.1057/eps.2013.21.

DAEN, M.2018. Factors Affecting Grade 12 Senior High School Students in Choosing Course for Tertiary Education,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32928.92164

ECHCHABI, A., AND AL-HAJRI, A.2018. Factors influencing students’ selection of universities: The case of Oman, Journal of Educational Research and Evaluation Volume 2, Number 2 Tahun Terbit, pp. 83-88.

FARAJ, B. AND MUHAMMED, A. 2021. Online Course Registration and Advisory Systems Based on Students’ Personal and Social Constraints, Kurdistan Journal of Applied Research (KJAR), Volume 6, Issue 2, pp.83-93.

HEATHCOTE, D., SAVAGE, S., AND HOSSEINIAN-FAR, A. 2020. Factors Affecting University Choice Behaviour in the UK Higher Education, Education Sciences journal Vol.10(8). DOI:10.3390/educsci10080199.ISSN 1990-9233.

NAZ, A., SAEED, G., KHAN, W., KHAN, N., IRUM SHEIKH AND NASAR KHAN. 2014. Peer and Friends and Career Decision Making, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 22 (8): 1193-1197, 2014

REICHERT, S. 2009. Institutional Diversity in European Higher Education, Tensions and challenges for policymakers and institutional leaders European. University Association, Brussels.

SABIR, R., AHMAD, W., ASHRAF, R., AND AHMED, N. 2013. Factors Affecting University and Course Choice: A Comparison of Undergraduate Engineering and Business Students in Central Punjab, Pakistan, Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(10) pp.298-305.

SADJAIL, S., DARWINA S., AND MATOLO, L. 2022. Factors Influencing Students in Choosing their College Course, Psych Educational MultidiscJ, Vol. 3 (8), 697-700, doi: 10.5281/zenodo.6994851

SHALLAL, M.2019. The Bologna Process: Question of Priorities and Relevance, Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU) Volume 8, No 3 (2019).pp.2-5.

SONGAN, P., SAM, H., TONGA, G., ABDUL RAHMAN, M., AND WAH, T. 2010. Factors Influencing Student Choice: A Study of a Malaysian Public University, Asian Journal of University Education, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp.75-89.

VEIGA, A., AMARAL, A. 2009. Survey on the implementation of the Bologna process in Portugal. High Education pp.57–69 mhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-008-9132-6

ZARE.A AND ABBAS SHEKAREY, A.2010. The effects of social, familial, and personal factors on students’ course selection in Iranian technical schools, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 9 (2010) pp.295–298.

RAJAB, F. 2023. A Survey Study on the Academics' Views towards the Implementation of the Bologna Process at Duhok Polytechnic University. Journal for Educators, Teachers, and Trainers, Vol. 14(3). 86-92.

KOK, F. AND WAGENEDER, G. 2023. Power to the faculty approach in the bologna process. Journal of Political Science: Bulletin of Yerevan University, Volume 2, No.1(4), pp.102-116. DOI: 10.46991/JOPS/2023.2.4.102

ZAHAVI, H. AND FRIEDMAN, Y.2019. The Bologna Process: an international higher education regime, European Journal of Higher Education, 9:1, 23-39, DOI: 10.1080/21568235.2018.1561314



How to Cite

Salahaddin Yasin Baper. (2024). Factors affecting Bologna process course registration in Architectural Engineering Department-Salahaddin University. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 36(2), 53–61. https://doi.org/10.21271/ZJPAS.36.2.5



Engineering and Computer Sciences