Parliamentary diplomacy and its importance to the Kurdistan Region


  • Assist. Prof. Dr. Omer Hamadamin Nuradeni College of Law and International Relations / Lebanese French University
  • Lect. Ahmed Babakr Ahmed College of Law and International Relations / Lebanese French University



        A number of factors and objectives have contributed to the development of the idea and concept of parliamentary diplomacy in the field of contemporary international relations and foreign policy, the most important factor is the progress and spread of media globalization and the impacts and necessities of openness and interaction among all countries with each other. One dimension of recent dynamic diplomacy aims to strengthen negotiation and cooperation, relationships between people and representatives, and exchange ideas, experience and expertise, as well as, disseminate culture and democracy dimensions around the world. Furthermore, enhancing international and regional cooperation for development and the establishment of international peace and security, and eliminating the threats to humanity, such as, natural disasters, and climate change, poverty and unemployment, violation. 

In this research, the concept of parliamentary diplomacy is studied and its characteristics are determined. Additionally, discuss about defining instruments this type of the diplomacy, which occasionally appear as parallel and public diplomacy involving multiple parties. On the other hand, concentrate on the internal and external goals of parliamentary diplomacy. At the end of the research, a brief summary of the conclusions and recommendations are presented, in particular, the recommendations on how to use and engagement parliamentary diplomacy in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq as a non- state actor. On peak of the objects, protect itself as a political and constitutional entity within the Iraqi federal state framework.




عزیز, سه‌ردار. پرسه‌ په‌رله‌مانییه‌كان، هه‌ولێر، چاپخانه‌ی شه‌هاب، 2020.

عزیز، سه‌ردار. دیبلۆماسیه‌تی په‌رله‌مانی، سلێمانی، ژووری توێژینه‌وه‌ی سیاسی بزوتنه‌وه‌ی گۆڕان،2016.

عمر نوره‌دینی، سیسته‌می نوێی جیهانی و دۆزی كورد-كوردستانی-عێراق وه‌ك نموونه‌، هه‌ولێر، چاپخانه‌ی شه‌هاب، ٢٠٠٣.


په‌رله‌مانی كوردستان - عێراق. 2023.

یاسای ژماره‌ (16)ی ساڵی 2002 په‌رله‌مانی كوردستان-عێراق:

المصادر العربية


ارین أ. منفست و ایفان م. أریغورین، مبادئ العلاقات الدولیة، دمشق، دار الفرقد، ٢٠١٣.

مارسیل مرل، السیاسة الخارجیه‌، جروس برس: سلسلة افاق دولیة، 1989.

مكسیم لوفابفر، السیاسة الخارجیة الامریكیة. بیروت، الطباعة بیروت، 2006.

نانسی طلال زیدان. "الدبلوماسیة البرلمانیة بین تأصیل الماضی و متطلبات الحاضر." 2021.

البحوث العلمية:

ایهاب احمد یحی ابراهیم، "دور الدبلوماسیة البرلمانیة فی الصراعات و بناء السلام: دراسة حالة الاتحاد البرلماني الدولی." المجلة الدولیة النشر الدراسات العلمیة، 2021.

خمیس البدري. "النشاطات الخارجية للاقاليم في الدول الفيدرالية دراسة مقارنة (( الفيدرالية العراقية ))." Iraqi Academic Scientific Journals - IASJ، ٢٠١٧.

راشد احمد الرشید. "الدبلوماسیة البرلمانیة : الاهداف و الالیات والادوار دراسة حالة مجلس النواب البحرینی." معهد البحرین للتنمیة السیاسة، ٢٠١٧.

رسائل الجامعية:

عیسی بورقیة، الدبلوماسیة البرلمانیة و اسهاماتها فی حل الغلافات العالمیة والوطنیة، رسالة ماجستیر فی القانون العام." جامعة هران2 - الجزائر، 2015.

المصادر الإلكترونية:

الاطلس السیاسی, معد البحرین للتنمیه‌، معد البحرین للتنمیه‌ السیاسیة, ٢٠٢٣.

النظــــام الداخــــلي لمجلس النواب العراق،

جابر غنيمي. الديبلوماسية البرلمانية. 9 نوفیمبر, 2021.

جمهوریة العراق- وزارة الخارجیة. "بيان صحفيّ." جمهوریة العراق- وزارة الخارجیة، 9 -1 - 2021.

حكومة إقليم كوردستان. GOV.KRD. ٣٠ ١١, ٢٠٢٣.

English References


Smyrnioti, Panagiota. Promotion of Parliamentary diplomacy through the newly. Greece: University of Peloponnese, 2019.

Academic Journal:

Ahmed, A. B. The Impact of The Economic Factor on The Country's Foreign Policy, Erbil, qalaai zanist scientific journal, 2022.

AWEPA. "The role of parliaments in conflict management and peace building." interdisciplinary global development center, 2020.

Bajtay, Peter. "Democratic and efficient foreign policy." Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, 2015.

Beetham, David. "Parliamentary and Democracy in the Twenty-First Century." Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2006.

Beliaeva, Tatiana. "Parliamentary diplomacy." Institute for Sociology, n.d.

Butler, Michael J. "International Negotiation in a Foreign Policy Context." international studies, March 01, 2010.

Goumenos, Thomas. "Parliamentary Diplomacy as ‘Track 1 1/2 Diplomacy’ in Conflict Resolution." E- International Relations, 2018.

Grydehoj, Adam. "Para diplomacy." Centre Maurits Coppieters, 2014.

Hamilton, G. J A. "parliamentary diplomacy." 2010.

Hamilton, G.J.A. "Parliamentary diplomacy." Memorandum, 2010.

Knights, Michael. "Leveraging U.S. Sanctions on Faleh al-Fayyad." the Washington institute for Near East Policy, Jan 8, 2021.

Kopping, Alexandra Athanasopulou. "To go where no one has gone before: Toward a model of parliamentary diplomacy in the European Parliament." UACES 47th Annual Conference. Krakow: university association for contemporary European studies, 2017.

Lyer, Kristen Robert. "Effective Human Rights Engagement for Parliamentary Bodies." International IDEA, 2012.

Master, Lesley. "South Africa’s Emerging Parliamentary Diplomacy and Foreign Policy." Strategic review for south Africa, 2022.

Mudyanadzo, Wenceslaus. "Parliamentary diplomacy as a critical component of zimbabwe’s foreign policy." International Journal of Politics and Good Governance, 2016.

Noulas, George. "The role of parliamentary diplomacy in foreign policy." Foreign policy journal, 2011.

Sibdre, Nina Caspersen and Gyda. "Supports, spoilers or sidelined: the role of parliaments in peacebuilding." interdisciplinary global development center, 2020.

Stavridis, Stelios. "Parliamentary diplomacy: any lessons for." Institute of International Economic Relations, 2016.


BBC. "" November 22, 2018

Mitrović, Dijana. Parliamentary Diplomacy in the Western Balkans. November 21, 2021.

Mbete, Baleka. Parliamentary Diplomacy: Sustainable Development beyond 2015. March 30, 2015.



How to Cite

Assist. Prof. Dr. Omer Hamadamin Nuradeni, & Lect. Ahmed Babakr Ahmed. (2024). Parliamentary diplomacy and its importance to the Kurdistan Region. Zanco Journal of Law and Politics گۆڤاری زانكۆ بۆ یاساورامیاری, 22(36), 157–176.